George StoyleDepartment of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK Manchester Medical School, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Siddharth BankaManchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Division of Evolution & Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester University, NHS Foundation Trust, Health Innovation Manchester, Manchester, UK
Elizabeth A JonesManchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Division of Evolution & Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester University, NHS Foundation Trust, Health Innovation Manchester, Manchester, UK
Wiedemann–Steiner Syndrome (WSS) is a rare condition characterised by short stature, hypertrichosis of the elbow, intellectual disability and characteristic facial dysmorphism due to heterozygous loss of function mutations in KMT2A, a gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Children with WSS are often short and until recently, it had been assumed that short stature is an intrinsic part of the syndrome. GHD has recently been reported as part of the phenotypic spectrum of WSS. We describe the case of an 8-year-old boy with a novel heterozygous variant in KMT2A and features consistent with a diagnosis of WSS who also had growth hormone deficiency (GHD). GHD was diagnosed on dynamic function testing for growth hormone (GH) secretion, low insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and pituitary-specific MRI demonstrating anterior pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. Treatment with GH improved height performance with growth trajectory being normalised to the parental height range. Our case highlights the need for GH testing in children with WSS and short stature as treatment with GH improves growth trajectory.
Growth hormone deficiency might be part of the phenotypic spectrum of Wiedemann–Steiner Syndrome (WSS).
Investigation of pituitary function should be undertaken in children with WSS and short stature. A pituitary MR scan should be considered if there is biochemical evidence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD).
Recombinant human growth hormone treatment should be considered for treatment of GHD.
A 40-year-old man with achondroplasia presented with symptoms of hypogonadism, low libido and gynaecomastia. He was found to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis showed SRY-positive 46, XX disorder of sex development (DSD). He was tested to have the common activating mutation of the FGFR3 gene implicated in achondroplasia, indicating that he had the two rare conditions independently, with an extremely low incidence of 1 in 400 million. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of an individual having these two rare conditions concurrently. This case highlights that individuals with achondroplasia should have normal sexual development, and in those presenting with incomplete sexual maturation or symptoms of hypogonadism should prompt further evaluation. We also propose a plausible link between achondroplasia and 46, XX DSD through the intricate interactions between the SRY, SOX9 and FGFR9 gene pathways.
The SOX9 and FGF9 genes, which are upregulated by the SRY gene, are important in both sex determination in the embryo, as well as endochondral bone growth.
Patients with achondroplasia should have normal sexual development and function in the absence of other confounding factors.
Patients with achondroplasia who present with symptoms and signs of abnormal sexual development and/or hypogonadism should be appropriately investigated for other causes.
Deletion of chromosome 2q37 results in a rare congenital syndrome known as brachydactyly mental retardation (BDMR) syndrome; a syndrome which has phenotypes similar to Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) syndrome. In this report, we describe a patient with AHO due to microdeletion in long arm of chromosome 2 [del(2)(q37.3)] who had growth hormone (GH) deficiency, which is a unique feature among reported BDMR cases. This case was presented with shortening of the fourth and fifth metacarpals which along with AHO phenotype, brings pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) to mind; however, a genetic study revealed del(2)(q37.3). We recommend clinicians to take BDMR in consideration when they are faced with the features of AHO; although this syndrome is a rare disease, it should be ruled out while diagnosing PPHP or PHP-Ia. Moreover, we recommend evaluation of IGF 1 level and GH stimulation test in patients with BDMR whose height is below the 3rd percentile.
Clinicians must have brachydactyly mental retardation (BDMR) syndrome in consideration when they are faced with the features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.
Although BDMR syndrome is a rare disease, it should be ruled out while diagnosing PPHP or PHP-Ia.
Evaluation of IGF1 level in patients diagnosed with BDMR whose height is below the 3rd percentile is important.
Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0–4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0–17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed.
Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.
While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.
Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).
Herein, we present a 14-year-old patient with short stature (134 cm) referred from Paediatrics to our department for complementary evaluation since growth hormone (GH) treatment failed to show any improvement. He was born premature and small for gestational age. Genital examination classified the patient as Tanner I–II with small penis and testicular size for his age. Biochemical analyses revealed normal GH levels with low serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Molecular diagnosis confirmed several mutations in IGF1R and IGFALS, and so he was diagnosed with Laron Syndrome or GH insensibility and treated with IGF-1 substitutive therapy.
Evaluation of the GH/IGF-1 axis when short stature does not respond to conservative treatment must be included in the ordinary practice.
Laron Syndrome real incidence should be calculated once undiagnosed cases arise, as treatment, due to lack of market, is unaffordable.
Even when adulthood is reached, and no longitudinal growth can be achieved, still IGF-1 treatment in Laron Syndrome patients should be pursued as metabolic and protective derangements could arise.
Combined pituitary hormonal deficiency (CPHD) is a rare disease that results from mutations in genes coding for transcription factors that regulate the differentiation of pituitary cells. PROP1 gene mutations are one of the etiological diagnoses of congenital panhypopituitarism, however symptoms vary depending on phenotypic expression. We present a case of psychosis in a 36-year-old female with congenital panhypopituitarism who presented with paranoia, flat affect and ideas of reference without a delirious mental state, which resolved with hormone replacement and antipsychotics. Further evaluation revealed that she had a homozygous mutation of PROP1 gene. In summary, compliance with hormonal therapy for patients with hypopituitarism appears to be effective for the prevention and treatment of acute psychosis symptoms.
Patients with PROP1 gene mutation may present with psychosis with no impairment in orientation and memory.
There is currently inadequate literature on this topic, and further study on the possible mechanisms of psychosis as a result of endocrine disturbance is required.
Compliance with hormonal therapy for patients with hypopituitarism appears to be effective for prevention and treatment of acute psychosis symptoms.
3-M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 genes. It is characterised by growth failure, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. Data in the literature show variable efficacy of GH in the treatment of short stature. We report four Emirati siblings with the condition. The index case is a 10-year-old boy with characteristic features, including prenatal and postnatal growth failure, a triangular face, a long philtrum, full lips and prominent heels. Genetic testing confirmed a novel mutation (p.val88Ala) in the CUL7 gene. The parents are healthy, first-degree cousins with nine children, of whom two died in the first year of life with respiratory failure. Both had low birth weight and growth retardation. The boy's older sibling reached an adult height of 117 cm (−6.71 SDS). She was never treated with GH. He was started on GH treatment at 7 years of age, when his height was 94 cm (−5.3 SDS). 3-M syndrome should be considered in children with short stature who have associated dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. The diagnosis is more likely to occur in families that have a history of consanguinity and more than one affected sibling. Death in early infancy due to respiratory failure is another clue to the diagnosis, which might have a variable phenotype within a family. Genetic testing is important for confirming the diagnosis and for genetic counselling. GH treatment might be beneficial in improving stature in affected children.
3-M syndrome should be considered in families that have more than one sibling with short stature, particularly if there is consanguinity.
Syndrome phenotype might be variable within a family with the same mutation.
Genetic analysis is helpful in confirming diagnosis in the presence of variable siblings' phenotype.
GH treatment might be useful in improving stature in 3-M syndrome.