We describe the case of an African woman who was diagnosed with ketosis-prone diabetes with diabetes-associated autoantibodies, after being admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) precipitated by her first presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She had a seven-year history of recurrent gestational diabetes (GDM) not requiring insulin therapy, with return to normoglycaemia after each pregnancy. This might have suggested that she had now developed type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the diagnosis of SLE prompted testing for an autoimmune aetiology for the diabetes, and she was found to have a very high titre of GAD antibodies. Typical type 1 diabetes (T1D) was thought unlikely due to the long preceding history of GDM. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) was considered, but ruled out as she required insulin therapy from diagnosis. The challenge of identifying the type of diabetes when clinical features overlap the various diabetes categories is discussed. This is the first report of autoimmune ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) presenting with new onset of SLE.
DKA may be the first presentation of a multi-system condition and a precipitating cause should always be sought, particularly in women with a history of GDM or suspected T2D.
All women with GDM should undergo repeat glucose tolerance testing postpartum to exclude frank diabetes, even when post-delivery capillary blood glucose (CBG) tests are normal. They should also be advised to continue CBG monitoring during acute illness in case of new onset diabetes.
KPD comprises a spectrum of diabetes syndromes that present with DKA, but subsequently have a variable course depending on the presence or absence of beta cell failure and/or diabetes autoantibodies.
KPD should be considered in a patient with presumed T2D presenting with DKA, especially if there is a personal or family history of autoimmune diabetes.
LADA should be suspected in adults presumed to have T2D, who do not require insulin therapy for at least six months after diagnosis and have anti-GAD antibodies.
Patients with autoimmune diabetes have an increased risk of other autoimmune diseases and screening for thyroid, parietal cell, coeliac and antinuclear antibodies should be considered.
Functional parathyroid cysts are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and are often mistaken for thyroid cysts. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is also a very rare cause of hypercalcemia. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with SLE 30 years ago, presenting with clinical and biochemical features of primary hyperparathyroidism. Laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels; neck ultrasonography (USG) revealed 40×34×26 mm cystic mass in the left lobe of thyroid gland. PTH level in the cysts was >2500 pg/ml, determined by USG-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this case, no evidence for potential pathogenic association between parathyroid cyst and SLE was uncovered. However, the recognition of this association is very important because the therapeutical strategy is completely different. Operative management is usually straightforward and alleviates symptoms and any biochemical abnormalities caused by the cyst.
Functional parathyroid cysts are the rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and are often mistaken for thyroid cysts.
SLE is also a very rare cause of hypercalcemia.
Ultrasound-guided FNA of cystic fluid with assay for PTH level is an accurate method of differentiating parathyroid cyst from thyroid cyst.
Appropriate management of functional parathyroid cysts is surgical excision.