Alan M RiceLaboratory of Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, Georgia, USA Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Center, Kalispell Regional Medical Center, Kalispell, Montana, USA
Fadi GebrailLaboratory of Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, Georgia, USA Laboratory of Pathology, Memorial University Medical Center, Savannah, Georgia, USA
Steroid hormones are essential for the survival of all mammals. In adrenal glands and gonads, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (SCC or CYP11A1), catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. We studied a patient with ambiguous genitalia by the absence of Müllerian ducts and the presence of an incompletely formed vagina, who had extremely high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and reduced pregnenolone levels with enlarged adrenal glands. The testes revealed seminiferous tubules, stroma, rete testis with interstitial fibrosis and reduced number of germ cells. Electron microscopy showed that the patient’s testicular mitochondrial size was small with little SCC expression within the mitochondria. The mitochondria were not close to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), and cells were filled with the microfilaments. Our result revealed that absence of pregnenolone is associated with organelle stress, leading to altered protein organization that likely created steric hindrance in testicular cells.
Testes revealed seminiferous tubules, stroma, rete testis with interstitial fibrosis and reduced number of germ cells;
Testicular mitochondrial size was small with little SCC expression within the mitochondria;
Absence of pregnenolone is associated with organelle stress.
In this case report, we present a novel mutation in Lim-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor, LHX3, manifesting as combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). This female patient was originally diagnosed in Egypt during infancy with Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) requiring several blood transfusions. Around 10 months of age, she was diagnosed and treated for central hypothyroidism. It was not until she came to the United States around two-and-a-half years of age that she was diagnosed and treated for growth hormone deficiency. Her response to growth hormone replacement on linear growth and muscle tone were impressive. She still suffers from severe global development delay likely due to delay in treatment of congenital central hypothyroidism followed by poor access to reliable thyroid medications. Her diagnosis of DBA was not confirmed after genetic testing in the United States and her hemoglobin normalized with hormone replacement therapies. We will review the patient’s clinical course as well as a review of LHX3 mutations and the associated phenotype.
Describe an unusual presentation of undertreated pituitary hormone deficiencies in early life
Combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to a novel mutation in pituitary transcription factor, LHX3
Describe the clinical phenotype of combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to LHX3 mutations
During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient’s history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland. While each individual entity has been well documented, this is one of the few reports in which concurrent presentation is reported. Given the fact that both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid are derivatives of the same embryonic structure (i.e. the third pharyngeal pouch), it is speculated that the present condition resulted from a failure in separation and migration during organogenesis.
Intrathyroidal thymus and parathyroid are commonly found individually, but rarely concurrently.
It is a benign and asymptomatic condition.
Differential diagnosis during routine workup with imaging modalities can be challenging.