The etiology of foot drop is diverse from various diseases to mechanic injuries and includes neuropathy of the peroneal nerve. Peroneal neuropathy might also be one of the forms of diabetic neuropathy, very rarely reported as the first sign of diabetes. We describe three cases of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (TID) who developed unilateral peroneal nerve palsies and tibial nerve palsies, presenting clinically as a foot drop. In two of our cases, the symptoms of foot drop occurred shortly after starting treatment for severe diabetes ketoacidosis. In the third patient, food drop was a reason for the initial medical consultation, but eventually, TID was diagnosed. The presented cases highlight that neuropathy can be observed not only as a chronic complication of T1D, but it can also appear at the time of disease manifestation. The incorrect position of the lower limb during a keto coma may contribute to the development of neuropathy.
Neuropathy can be observed not only as a chronic complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but it can also appear at the time of disease manifestation.
The incorrect position of the lower limb causing external pressure during a keto coma may contribute to the development of neuropathy.
It is important to examine the glycemia in patients with acute peroneal neuropathy, as this kind of peripheral neuropathy can be associated with newly diagnosed T1D. Normalization of glycemia might lead to rapid neuronal recovery.
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, multisystem disease with an undetermined etiology. The presence of noncaseating granulomas in involved organs is a characteristic pathomorphological feature. Sarcoidosis, like a chameleon, can mimic different medical conditions. Although the lungs are most commonly involved, extrapulmonary manifestations can influence any system. The clinical course of the disease may differ. Immediate initiation of glucocorticosteroid therapy is important when critical organs are impaired. A case of a patient with sarcoidosis whose first clinical symptoms were related to diabetes insipidus (DI) was presented. The diagnosis of multiple organ sarcoidosis was delayed because of an adequate response to treatment with vasopressin. The multidisciplinary diagnostic approach validated the involvement of the pituitary gland, lungs, lymph nodes, bones, and subcutaneous tissue. The presented case emphasizes the critical importance of the multifaceted differential diagnosis of patients with DI.
Sarcoidosis usually affects the lung but can also be a multisystemic disease.
The assessment of the extension of sarcoidosis remains complex.
A multidisciplinary approach must identify all-organ involvement and initiate appropriate sarcoidosis treatment.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) can be the first symptom of a systemic granulomatous disorder.
In the differential diagnosis of DI, a comprehensive assessment of rare causes of endocrine disorders, including extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, should be considered.
Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a multi-system mitochondrial disease with wide clinical presentation. We describe the case of a 16-year-old girl with KSS accompanied by insulin-dependent diabetes, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), Fanconi syndrome, insufficiency of parathyroid gland and severe nutritional problems. Based on recent knowledge, ketogenic diet was introduced to improve metabolic and neurological condition, however in our patient we observed its bad consequences. Unresolved nutritional disorders forced us to proceed with esophagogastroduodenoscopy which revealed EoE. PEG procedure was performed and elemental diet with PPI’s was introduced leading to general improvement in the patient’s health condition.
Nutrition is an important factor in supportive care of patients with KSS.
Ketogenic diet in patients affected by mitochondrial diseases and diabetes requires careful selection and monitoring.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that shows the coexistence of EoE, insulin-dependent diabetes and KSS.
Type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIR) is characterised by the rapid onset of severe insulin resistance due to circulating anti-insulin receptor antibodies (AIRAs). Widespread acanthosis nigricans is normally seen, and co-occurrence with other autoimmune diseases is common. We report a 27-year-old Caucasian man with psoriasis and connective tissue disease who presented with unexplained rapid weight loss, severe acanthosis nigricans, and hyperglycaemia punctuated by fasting hypoglycaemia. Severe insulin resistance was confirmed by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamping, and immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated AIRAs, confirming TBIR. Treatment with corticosteroids, metformin and hydroxychloroquine allowed withdrawal of insulin therapy, with stabilisation of glycaemia and diminished signs of insulin resistance; however, morning fasting hypoglycaemic episodes persisted. Over three years of follow-up, metabolic control remained satisfactory on a regimen of metformin, hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate; however, psoriatic arthritis developed. This case illustrates TBIR as a rare but severe form of acquired insulin resistance and describes an effective multidisciplinary approach to treatment.
We describe an unusual case of type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIR) in association with mixed connective tissue disease and psoriasis.
Clinical evidence of severe insulin resistance was corroborated by euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, and anti-insulin receptor autoantibodies were confirmed by immunoprecipitation assay.
Treatment with metformin, hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate ameliorated extreme insulin resistance.
Papillary thyroid gland carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy of the endocrine system. Metastases to the pituitary gland have been described as a complication of papillary thyroid cancer in few reported cases since 1965. We report the case of a 68-year-old female patient with a well-differentiated form of thyroid gland cancer. Despite it being the most common malignant cancer of the endocrine system, with its papillary form being one of the two most frequently diagnosed thyroid cancers, the case we present is extremely rare. Sudden cardiac arrest during ventricular fibrillation occurred during hospitalization. Autopsy of the patient revealed papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular variant, with metastasis to the sella turcica, and concomitant sarcoidosis of heart, lung, and mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Not only does atypical metastasis make our patient’s case most remarkable, but also the postmortem diagnosis of sarcoidosis makes her case particularly unusual.
The goal of presenting this case is to raise awareness of the clinical heterogeneity of papillary cancer and promote early diagnosis of unexpected metastasis and coexisting diseases to improve clinical outcomes.
Clinicians must be skeptical. They should not fall into the trap of diagnostic momentum or accept diagnostic labels at face value. Regardless of the potential mechanisms, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of the coexistence of thyroid cancer and sarcoidosis as a differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy.
This case highlights the importance of the diagnostic and therapeutic planning process and raises awareness of the fact that one uncommon disease could be masked by another extremely rare disorder.