A 59-year-old male presented with an accidental thyroid mass in 2022. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a nodule 5.2 × 4.9 × 2.8 cm (EU-TIRADS 4) in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Taking into account the results of the fine needle aspiration biopsy (Bethesda V), intrathyroid localization, and absence of clinical symptoms, a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland was suspected. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy using fluorescence angiography with indocyanine green, and two pairs of intact parathyroid glands were visualized in typical localization. Unexpected histological and immunohistochemistry examinations revealed parathyroid carcinoma. Due to the asymptomatic course of the disease and atypical localization of parathyroid tumor, primary hyperparathyroidism was not suspected before the surgery. The diagnosis of asymptomatic intrathyroid parathyroid cancer is a serious diagnostic challenge for a wide range of specialists.
Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease that may be asymptomatic.
Intrathyroidal localization of parathyroid carcinoma is casuistic and challenging for diagnosis, and the treatment strategy is not well defined.
Preoperative parathyroid hormone and serum calcium testing are recommended for patients with solid thyroid nodules (Bethesda IV–V).
Lamin A/C (LMNA) gene mutations cause a heterogeneous group of progeroid disorders, including Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, mandibuloacral dysplasia, atypical progeroid syndrome (APS) and generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome (GLPS). All of those syndromes are associated with some progeroid features, lipodystrophy and metabolic complications but vary differently depending on a particular mutation and even patients carrying the same gene variant are known to have clinical heterogeneity. We report a new 30-year-old female patient from Russia with an APS and generalized lipodystrophy (GL) due to the heterozygous de novoLMNA p.E262K mutation and compare her clinical and metabolic features to those of other described patients with APS. Despite many health issues, short stature, skeletal problems, GL and late diagnosis of APS, our patient seems to be relatively metabolically healthy for her age when compared to previously described patients with APS.
Atypical progeroid syndromes (APS) are rare and heterogenic with different age of onset and degree of metabolic disorders, which makes this diagnosis very challenging for clinicians and may be missed until the adulthood.
The clinical picture of the APS depends on a particular mutation in the LMNA gene, but may vary even between the patients with the same mutation.
The APS due to a heterozygous LMNA p.E262K mutation, which we report in this patient, seems to have association with the generalized lipodystrophy, short stature and osteoporosis, but otherwise, it seems to cause relatively mild metabolic complications by the age of 30.
The patients with APS and lipodystrophy syndromes require a personalized and multidisciplinary approach, and so they should be referred to highly specialized reference-centres for diagnostics and treatment as early as possible.
Because of the high heterogeneity of such a rare disease as APS, every patient’s description is noteworthy for a better understanding of this challenging syndrome, including the analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations.
Ekaterina TroshinaDepartment of Therapeutic Endocrinology, Endocrinology Research Centre (ERC), Moscow, Russia Russian Academy of Sciences, Endocrinology Service, Department of Therapeutic Endocrinology, Endocrinology Research Centre (ERC), Moscow, Russia
Insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata’s disease) is a disorder caused by development of autoantibodies to insulin and manifested by hypoglycaemic syndrome. The overwhelming majority of physicians do not include it in the differential diagnosis of hypoglycaemic states because of a misconception of an extremely low prevalence of this condition. This results in unnecessary drug therapy and unjustified surgical interventions in patients that otherwise would be successfully treated conservatively. This disease is strongly associated with certain alleles of the HLA gene. In most cases, this condition develops in predisposed individuals taking drugs containing sulfhydryl groups. Formation of autoantibodies to insulin may be observed in patients with other autoimmune disorders, as well as in those with multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. This paper presents the first Russian case report of insulin autoimmune syndrome in an adult patient.
Insulin autoimmune syndrome, Hirata’s disease, anti-insulin antibodies, and hypoglycaemia.
A 32-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhoea, prolactin (PRL) level of 154 150 mIU/L and was diagnosed with a giant pituitary adenoma measuring maximum 6.2 cm. Cabergoline (CAB) treatment at a dose of 0.5 mg/week was prescribed to the patient. The treatment decreased the tumour size after 3 months (MRI scans of the brain) and brought back to normal the level of the PRL (345 mIU/L) after 6 months of CAB treatment. After 7 months of CAB treatment, menarche was achieved, and after 12 months, the patient became pregnant. She discontinued taking CAB at 4-week gestation. The pregnancy resulted in a missed miscarriage at 6–7 weeks; an abortion was conducted by the vacuum aspiration method. The MRI scans of the brain did not show any tumour enlargement. After 18 months from the start of the treatment the patient got pregnant for the second time. At 25-week gestation an MRI scan of the brain was conducted which did not show any increase in the tumour size. At 38 weeks the patient delivered a healthy full-term girl via C-section. The patient chose not to breastfeed and resumed CAB therapy after the delivery. During the treatment, the PRL level returned to the normal range and the menstrual cycle was restored. After 3 years the patient got pregnant for the third time. The patient did not receive CAB during the pregnancies; the examination did not show any tumour enlargement. Further MRI scans did not show any tumour growth. CAB therapy was effective in normalization of the PRL level, tumour shrinkage, menarche and pregnancy-induction which led to the birth of healthy children in a woman with primary amenorrhoea and a giant prolactinoma invading the skull base bones.
Giant prolactinomas are very rarely found in women.
Cabergoline therapy can be effective in the normalization of the PRL level, tumour shrinkage, menarche induction in a woman with primary amenorrhoea, and giant prolactinoma.
Cabergoline therapy can be effective in pregnancy induction which leads to the birth of children in a woman with giant prolactinoma.
Cabergoline discontinuation did not trigger tumour enlargement during pregnancy.
The use of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is rapidly emerging as an important clinical tool to evaluate changes in corneal sensory nerves as a surrogate measure for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Commonly used metrics to document and grade the severity of diabetes and risk for diabetic peripheral neuropathy include nerve fiber length, density, branching and tortuosity. In addition to corneal nerves, thinning of the retinal fiber layer has been shown to correlate with the severity of diabetic disease. Here, we present a case report on a pre-diabetic 60-year-old native American woman with abnormal corneal nerve morphology and retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. Her past medical history was positive for illicit substance abuse. IVCM showed a decrease in nerve fiber density and length, in addition to abnormally high levels of tortuosity. OCT revealed focal areas of reduced retinal nerve fiber layer thickness that were asymmetric between eyes. This is the first report of abnormally high levels of tortuosity in the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus in a patient with a past history of cocaine abuse. It also demonstrates, for the first time, that illicit substance abuse can have long-term adverse effects on ocular nerves for years following discontinued use of the drug. Studies using IVCM to evaluate changes in corneal nerve morphology in patients with diabetes need to consider a past history of illicit drug use as an exclusionary measure.
Multiple ocular and systemic factors can impede accurate assessment of the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus by IVCM in diabetes.
Although current history was negative for illicit substance abuse, past history can have longstanding effects on corneal nerves and the retinal nerve fiber layer.
Illicit drug use must be considered an exclusionary measure when evaluating diabetes-induced changes in corneal nerve morphology and the retinal nerve fiber layer.
Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare disorder with little treatment options. It could be misdiagnosed in medical centers with little experience in management of such cases. Our clinical case shows that the initial misdiagnosis of a parathyroid carcinoma in a young woman has led to the development of multiple lung metastases, thus making its treatment hardly possible. Initiation of treatment with sorafenib – a multi-kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of different types of cancer but not parathyroid carcinoma – has led to a significant decrease in the size of lung metastases and has prevented the progression of hyperparathyroidism, which is usually severe in cases of parathyroid carcinoma. The detection of a germline CDC73 mutation in this patient has raised additional concerns about the necessity of periodic screening for early detection of renal, jaw and uterine lesions.
Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma may be challenging due to the absence of reliable diagnostic criteria. Thus, thorough histological examination is needed using immunohistochemical staining of resected tissue in suspicious cases.
CDC73 genetic testing should be considered in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
Sorafenib may be a promising treatment of patients with parathyroid carcinoma with distant metastases.