Iftikhar JanPaediatric Surgery Division, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Asma DeebPediatric Endocrinology Division, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
The most frequent causes of pancreatitis classically have been known to be gallstones or alcohol. However, genetics can also play a key role in predisposing patients to both chronic and acute pancreatitis. The serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK 1) gene is known to be strongly associated with pancreatitis. Patients with these underlying genetic mutations can have severe diseases with a high morbidity rate and frequent hospitalization. We report an Arab girl who presented with acute pancreatitis at the age of 7 years progressing to recurrent chronic pancreatitis over a few years. She had severe obesity from the age of 4 years and developed type 2 diabetes at the age of 12. She had a normal biliary system anatomy. Genetic analysis showed that she had combined heterozygous mutations in the SPINK1 gene (SPINK1, c.101A>G p.(Asn34Ser) and SPINK1, c.56-37T>C). Her parents were first-degree cousins, but neither had obesity. Mother was detected to have the same mutations. She had type 2 diabetes but never presented with pancreatitis. This case is the first to be reported from the Arab region with these combined mutations leading to recurrent chronic pancreatitis. It illustrates the importance of diagnosing the underlying genetic mutation in the absence of other known causes of pancreatitis. Considering the absence of pancreatitis history in the mother who did not have obesity but harboured the same mutations, we point out that severe obesity might be a triggering factor of pancreatitis in the presence of the mutations in SPINK1 gene in this child. While this is not an assumption from a single patient, we show that not all carriers of this mutation develop the disease even within the same family. Triggering factors like severe obesity might have a role in developing the disease.
Acute recurrent pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis are uncommon in children but might be underdiagnosed.
Biliary tract anomalies and dyslipidaemias are known causative factors for pancreatitis, but pancreatitis can be seen in children with intact biliary system.
Genetic diagnosis should be sought in children with pancreatitis in the absence of known underlying predisposing factors.
SPINK1 mutations can predispose to an early-onset severe recurrent pancreatitis and acute pancreatitis.
Wolcott–Rallison syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the EIF2AK3 gene. It is characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, skeletal dysplasia, liver impairment, neutropenia and renal dysfunction. Liver is the most commonly affected organ and liver failure is the commonest cause of death in this syndrome. The EIF2AK3 gene encodes a transmembrane protein PERK, which is important for the cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The absence of PERK activity reduces the ER’s abilities to deal with stress, leading to cell death by apoptosis. On acquiring febrile illness, affected patients suffer from liver injury, which may progress into liver failure and death. Renal involvement is less common and is mainly in the form of functional renal impairment at the advanced stage of the disease. Structural renal anomalies have not been reported in WRS. We report a 6-month-old girl who presented with neonatal diabetes on day 1 of life. Her genetic testing confirmed WRS due to missense mutation in the EIF2AK3 gene (c.2867G > A, p.Gly956Glu). Parents are first-degree cousins and both are heterozygous carriers to the mutation. 2 paternal uncles had the same mutation and died of liver disease at 1 and 14 years of age. Neither had a renal disease. She presented with hematuria during a febrile illness at the age of 5 months. Ultrasound scan showed right ectopic multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with WRS who is reported to have an MCDK disease.
Neonatal diabetes should be considered in babies presenting with early hyperglycemia particularly if there is a family history.
Genetic diagnosis in neonatal diabetes enables disease confirmation, genetic counseling and anticipation of potential complications during concomitant situations such as acute illness, trauma or major surgery.
There is lack of phenotype–genotype correlation in Wolcott–Rallison syndrome.
Structural kidney abnormality, in our case MCDK, can be seen in WRS.
Combined17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a rare cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hypogonadism. Hypertension and hypokalemia are essential presenting features. We report an Arab family with four affected XX siblings. The eldest presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal malignant mixed germ cell tumour. She was hypertensive and hypogonadal. One sibling presented with headache due to hypertension while the other two siblings were diagnosed with hypertension on a routine school check. A homozygous R96Q missense mutation in P450c17 was detected in the index case who had primary amenorrhea and lack of secondary sexual characters at 17 years. The middle two siblings were identical twins and had no secondary sexual characters at the age of 14. All siblings had hypokalemia, very low level of adrenal androgens, high ACTH and high levels of aldosterone substrates. Treatment was commenced with steroid replacement and puberty induction with estradiol. The index case had surgical tumor resection and chemotherapy. All siblings required antihypertensive treatment and the oldest remained on two antihypertensive medications 12 years after diagnosis. Her breast development remained poor despite adequate hormonal replacement. Combined 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a rare condition but might be underdiagnosed. It should be considered in young patients presenting with hypertension, particularly if there is a family history of consanguinity and with more than one affected sibling. Antihypertensive medication might continue to be required despite adequate steroid replacement. Breast development may remain poor in mutations causing complete form of the disease.
Endocrine hypertension due to rarer forms of CAH should be considered in children and adolescents, particularly if more than one sibling is affected and in the presence of consanguinity.
17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a rare form of CAH but might be underdiagnosed.
Blood pressure measurement should be carried out in all females presenting with hypogonadism.
Anti-hypertensive medications might be required despite adequate steroid replacement.
Initial presenting features might vary within affected members of the same family.
Adverse breast development might be seen in the complete enzyme deficiency forms of the disease.
3-M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 genes. It is characterised by growth failure, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. Data in the literature show variable efficacy of GH in the treatment of short stature. We report four Emirati siblings with the condition. The index case is a 10-year-old boy with characteristic features, including prenatal and postnatal growth failure, a triangular face, a long philtrum, full lips and prominent heels. Genetic testing confirmed a novel mutation (p.val88Ala) in the CUL7 gene. The parents are healthy, first-degree cousins with nine children, of whom two died in the first year of life with respiratory failure. Both had low birth weight and growth retardation. The boy's older sibling reached an adult height of 117 cm (−6.71 SDS). She was never treated with GH. He was started on GH treatment at 7 years of age, when his height was 94 cm (−5.3 SDS). 3-M syndrome should be considered in children with short stature who have associated dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. The diagnosis is more likely to occur in families that have a history of consanguinity and more than one affected sibling. Death in early infancy due to respiratory failure is another clue to the diagnosis, which might have a variable phenotype within a family. Genetic testing is important for confirming the diagnosis and for genetic counselling. GH treatment might be beneficial in improving stature in affected children.
3-M syndrome should be considered in families that have more than one sibling with short stature, particularly if there is consanguinity.
Syndrome phenotype might be variable within a family with the same mutation.
Genetic analysis is helpful in confirming diagnosis in the presence of variable siblings' phenotype.
GH treatment might be useful in improving stature in 3-M syndrome.