Mohamed Zahir AlimohamedShree Hindu Mandal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Department of Biochemistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Tanzania Human Genetics Organization, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Pathogenic variants in the nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 gene (NR5A1), which encodes steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), result in 46,XY and 46,XX differences of sex development (DSD). In 46,XY individuals with a pathogenic variant in the NR5A1 gene a variable phenotype ranging from mild to severe is seen, including adrenal failure, testis dysgenesis, androgen synthesis defects, hypospadias and anorchia with microphallus and infertility. We report the clinical, endocrinological and genetic characteristics of a patient with 46,XY DSD with a novel likely pathogenic missense variant in the NR5A1 gene. A retrospective evaluation of the medical history, physical examination, limited endocrinological laboratory analysis and genetic analysis with DSD gene panel testing was performed. A 1.5-month-old individual was referred with ambiguous genitalia. The karyotype was 46,XY. The endocrinological analyses were within normal male reference including a normal response of cortisol within an adrenocorticotropic hormone test. A novel heterozygous missense variant c.206G>C p.(Arg69Pro) in the NR5A1 gene was detected. This variant was present in mosaic form (~20%) in his unaffected father. Because another missense variant at the same position and other missense variants involving the same highly conserved codon have been reported, we consider this NR5A1 variant in this 46,XY DSD patient as likely pathogenic in accordance with the ACMG/AMP 2015 guidelines causing ambiguous genitalia but no adrenal insufficiency. This variant was inherited from the apparently unaffected mosaic father, which might have implications for the recurrence risk in this family.
The importance of performing trio (patient and parents) sequencing is crucial in pointing out the origin of inheritance.
In a 46,XY differences of sex development patient, a normal adrenal function does not rule out an NR5A1 mutation.
With the support of a dedicated overseas institute partnership, we could solve this complex clinical case by molecular diagnosis in a resource-limited setting.
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism triggered by precipitants that increase the activity of the sodium-potassium pump in the skeletal muscle. In our case study, a previously healthy 34-year-old male presented to the emergency department with new onset thyrotoxicosis, secondary to Graves’ disease. Given the severity of his triiodothyronine (T3) thyrotoxicosis, he was admitted and started on a high dose of beta-blocker, thioamides, and intravenous hydrocortisone. On the second day of his hospitalization, he developed acute flaccid paralysis of his lower extremities. Subsequent stroke workup was negative, and his electrolytes revealed severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia consistent with TPP. He was treated with potassium and had a complete recovery of his paralysis and hypokalemia within hours. The patient has not had any recurrence since this singular episode in the hospital. This case highlights the scenario where the treatment of hyperthyroidism with high-dose corticosteroids to reduce the conversion of thyroxine to T3 inadvertently resulted in TPP. Clinicians should be aware of this potentially rare but serious consequence of using steroids to manage hyperthyroidism.
High-dose steroids used to treat hyperthyroidism in hospitalized patients may rarely precipitate thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) by inducing hypokalemia and hyperglycemia.
TPP should be included in the differential diagnosis for acute flaccid paralysis in hospitalized patients with hyperthyroidism.
Since TPP is associated with trans-cellular shifts in potassium instead of total body potassium depletion, conservative repletion of potassium is recommended to avoid rebound hyperkalemia.
Osilodrostat is a novel, orally administered cortisol synthesis inhibitor, approved in 2020 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome in adults. A significant amount of the studies currently available in the literature focus on treatment in patients with Cushing’s disease. However, data collected from patients treated with osilodrostat in real-life settings still represents a small entity. For this reason, in this article, we will discuss two real-life cases of patients with Cushing’s disease treated with this drug. The first report is about a 35-year-old woman with an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenoma. After non-curative trans-nasal-sphenoidal (TNS) surgery, due to a small remnant of the adenoma, medical therapy with osilodrostat achieved fast and effective biochemical and clinical response. During treatment, progressive increase of ACTH levels and an enlargement of the pituitary remnant were documented, with planned radiosurgical treatment. The second case reports a 32-year-old man diagnosed with Cushing’s disease in 2020, who, after surgery refusal, started osilodrostat at progressively up-titrated doses, according to 24 h urinary free cortisol levels, up to 5 mg twice a day. With osilodrostat, the patient reached biochemical and clinical control of disease until TNS surgery in October 2021, with complete remission. The first post-surgical biochemical assessment was equivocal in spite of a transient clinical hypoadrenalism, reverted after 2 months with the restoration of physiological hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function.
Osilodrostat is a potent oral drug viable for Cushing’s disease as medical therapy when surgery is not feasible or remission cannot be reached.
Osilodrostat proves to be a safe drug and its main adverse effect is hypoadrenalism, due to the adrenolytic action of the compound.
Osilodrostat needs a very tailored approach in its clinical use because there is no correlation between the level of hypercortisolism pre-treatment and the dose required to reach disease control.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2) is one of the important causes of low-grade chronic inflammation (meta inflammation) seen in almost all tissues in the body. Other possible mechanisms involved in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with DM-2 are the hypertonicity of the peripheral sympathetic nerves and hyperinsulinemia effects on the autonomous nervous system activity. These further suggests that abnormalities in glucose homeostasis influence the hyperproliferation of the prostate cells resulting in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Similarly, hepatic steatosis, a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence among patients with DM-2, is as high as 75%. NAFLD has no symptoms in most diabetic patients. In this study, we present a case of a 64-year-old Black male who had worsening urinary urgency and hesitancy for 4 months, with increasing abdominal girth. Patient was found to have symptoms, diagnostic studies, and physical exam findings indicative of BPH and fatty liver disease. He was treated with hepato-protective medications, tighter control of his blood glucose levels, and blood pressure meds for 13 months. Upon follow-up, most of his symptoms were resolved. Timeline of BPH resolution and decrease in liver size following treatment suggest that DM-2 has a strong correlation with the development of BPH and fatty liver disease in most patients living with diabetes.
Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) tend to have significantly lower serum PSA level, lower testosterone levels, and larger prostate volume compared to non-diabetic male patients.
Patients with DM-2 have higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis, liver cirrhosis, and end-stage liver failure.
The role of metformin in reducing hepatic steatosis as stated by several studies is yet to be validated as our patient has been on metformin for 22 years for the management of DM-2 with fatty liver disease.
Anaphylaxis is a rapidly progressive potentially lethal condition, and epinephrine is the most crucial medication in its treatment. In this study, we present a case of diabetic ketoacidosis in a young woman that was precipitated by the administration of epinephrine to treat anaphylaxis. This patient had diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control and developed ketoacidosis despite having evidence of ongoing endogenous insulin production and having been treated with exogenous long-acting insulin less than 24 h prior to the event. This is a rare, serious, adverse side effect of life-saving medication. This report demonstrates that the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis should be considered when administering epinephrine to patients with diabetes, even in the absence of complete insulin deficiency.
Epinephrine directly suppresses insulin secretion, stimulates lipolysis, and causes ketone body generation.
High-dose catecholamine administration can cause unexpected diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with risk factors.
Early administration of insulin may not protect patients from developing ketoacidosis in the setting of high-dose catecholamine administration.
Caroline SchulmeisterPediatric Endocrinology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Pediatric Endocrinology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California, USA
Skeletal abnormalities with delayed bone age and decreased linear bone growth are commonly found in children with prolonged juvenile hypothyroidism. However, rachitic bone abnormalities have not been previously reported in children with acquired hypothyroidism. Here, we present a case of newly found rickets in an 8-year-old female with untreated acquired hypothyroidism secondary to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Laboratory finding for abnormalities in calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and hormones that regulate skeletal health was normal. Her radiographic anomalies resolved with levothyroxine treatment alone, suggesting that hypothyroidism was the etiology of the rickets. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of rickets associated with long-standing severe acquired hypothyroidism that resolved exclusively with thyroid repletion.
Thyroid hormone plays an important role in bone mineralization.
Prolonged hypothyroidism can result in rachitic bone abnormalities noted on radiographs.
Hypothyroidism should be considered in the evaluation of a child with rickets.
Graves’ disease can have multiple cardiac manifestations. A rare complication is that of severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve chordae rupture, due to both compromise of valve integrity by deposition of glycosaminoglycans and the hemodynamic stresses of thyrotoxicosis. Pregnancy, with its related hemodynamic changes, is another setting in which mitral valve chordae rupture has occasionally been documented. We present a unique case of a 36-year-old female with uncontrolled Graves’ disease who presented during pregnancy at 13 weeks gestation with atrial flutter and features of congestive heart failure. Echocardiogram found severe mitral regurgitation secondary to a ruptured mitral chord. She was treated conservatively with diuresis and ultimately delivered her baby without complication at 28 weeks when she had preterm premature rupture of membranes. She is currently on methimazole and propranolol and pending definitive management of her Graves’ disease. This represents not only a rare cardiac complication in a patient with Graves’ disease but also is the first in the literature, to our knowledge, which describes this complication in a pregnant patient with Graves’ disease.
Thyroid disease can have multiple effects on the heart through hemodynamic and structural changes and can result in heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular disease, and pulmonary hypertension.
Graves’ disease can cause glycosaminoglycan deposition in valvular tissue resulting in fragile leaflets that can rupture with little stress.
Pregnancy and thyrotoxicosis have similar hemodynamic consequences with increased cardiac output and reduced systemic vascular resistance.
Be vigilant in those with hyperthyroidism with a new murmur or features of acute heart failure, as a ruptured valve chord can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not recognized and addressed quickly.
Nyasatu G ChambaDepartment of Internal Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania Department of Internal Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania
Elichilia R ShaoDepartment of Internal Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania Department of Internal Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania
Myxedema coma is a severe complication of hypothyroidism, commonly affecting women over 60 years of age, causing slow, progressive multi-organ dysfunction, and mental deterioration. Due to improved diagnostics and treatment of hypothyroidism, myxedema coma has become uncommon. However, it is hardly reported in resource-limited settings. We present an elderly female with a history of total thyroidectomy due to multi-nodular goiter. She presented with features of heart failure, excessive weight gain, and cold sensation. Although the patient was on levothyroxine replacement therapy, her laboratory tests were suggestive of overt primary hypothyroidism. During the course of her hospitalization, she developed subcutaneous bleeding with frank hematuria. This led to an altered mental state and hypotension that were suggestive of myxedema coma. Stroke and pulmonary embolism were ruled out as potential differential diagnoses of her current state. She was treated with a high dose of oral levothyroxine followed by 150 μg of oral levothyroxine daily, which resulted in a favorable outcome despite being a fatal emergency. She was also treated with intravenous hydrocortisone and furosemide. Oral thyroid hormone replacement may be an effective option in those resource-limited settings where intravenous thyroid hormone replacement is not available. However, early diagnosis and treatment with an adequate dose of thyroid hormones are crucial to achieve a favorable outcome.
Myxedema coma is an uncommon complication of hypothyroidism with a fatal outcome.
The diagnosis of myxedema coma is based on clinical suspicion, especially in patients with hypothyroidism and in the presence of precipitating factors. Although diagnostic and scoring criteria based on clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been proposed, no consensus has been reached.
This article shows an alternative treatment option for myxedema coma using oral levothyroxine, which led to a favorable outcome.
Thyroid dermopathy is an uncommon manifestation of thyroid disease that impairs the quality of life in certain cases. Currently, the available treatments offer limited results and a chance of recurrence. Teprotumumab, a novel medication that results in the regression of thyroid ophthalmopathy, may have similar effects on dermopathy. We describe four patients treated with teprotumumab for their thyroid ophthalmopathy who concomitantly had dermatopathy upon initiation of their infusions. Patients improved after two to three infusions and three out of the four patients have not suffered a recurrence.Teprotumumab is a monoclonal antibody (MAB) that attenuates an inflammatory response, resulting in decreased edema and tissue expansion. Given the similarities of their pathophysiology, we believe that the resolution of thyroid dermatopathy and regression of thyroid eye disease occurs via the same mechanism. We encourage further investigation utilizing teprotumumab for patients whose dermopathy is associated with impaired quality of life.
Thyroid dermopathy (TD), an uncommon manifestation of thyroid disease, may occasionally impair function and quality of life.
There are only a few treatments for TD, with limited results and high rates of recurrence.
Teprotumumab is a Food and Drug Administration-approved medication used for thyroid eye disease (TED).
Our patients treated with teprotumumab for TED showed improvement of TD, which demonstrates its potential use for this condition.
Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser syndrome is characterized by congenital absence or hypoplasia of the uterus and upper two-thirds of the vagina in both phenotypically and karyotypically normal females with functional ovaries, whereas gonadal dysgenesis is a primary ovarian defect in otherwise normal 46,XX females. An association between these two conditions is extremely rare. We report a 21-year-old female presented with primary amenorrhea and undeveloped secondary sexual characteristics. The karyotype was 46,XX and the hormonal profile revealed hypothyroidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Pelvic MRI showed class I Mullerian duct anomaly with ovarian dysgenesis. Ultrasound showed bilateral thyroid hypoplasia and brain MRI suggested anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Levothyroxine and hormone replacement therapy were started.
The simultaneous presentation of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser syndrome, hypothyroidism, and pituitary hypoplasia is a Possibility.
Extensive evaluation should be made when a patient presents with one or more of these features.
The diagnosis imposes a significant psychological burden on patients and adequate counseling should be provided.
Hormone replacement therapy remains the only therapeutic option for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the prevention of osteoporosis.