Pancreatic dysgenesis (PD) is a rare congenital disease, with less than 100 cases reported in the literature. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is made incidentally. In this report, we present the case of two brothers with a history of intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, hyperglycemia, and poor weight gain. The diagnosis of PD and neonatal diabetes mellitus was made by an interdisciplinary team composed of an endocrinologist, a gastroenterologist, and a geneticist. Once the diagnosis was made, treatment with an insulin pump, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, and supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins was decided. The use of the insulin infusion pump facilitated the outpatient treatment of both patients.
Pancreatic dysgenesis is a relatively rare congenital anomaly; most of the time, patients are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally.
The diagnosis of pancreatic dysgenesis and neonatal diabetes mellitus should be made with an interdisciplinary team.
Due to its flexibility, the use of an insulin infusion pump facilitated the management of these two patients.
Phaeochromocytoma, a rare neuroendocrine tumour of chromaffin cell origin, is characterised by catecholamine excess. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic disease to life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction. Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy is a dreaded complication with high lethality. While there is lack of evidence-based guidelines for use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) in the management of this condition, limited to case reports and small case series, V-A ECMO has been reported as ‘bridge to recovery’ therapy, providing circulatory support in the initial period of stabilisation prior to surgery. We report on two patients presenting with catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy and circulatory collapse who were successfully treated with V-A ECMO for 5 and 6 days, respectively, providing initial haemodynamic support. After stabilisation and introduction of alpha-blockade, both cases had favourable outcomes, with successful laparoscopic adrenalectomies on days 62 and 83 of admission, respectively. Our case reports provide further support for the use of V-A ECMO in the treatment of such gravely ill patients.
Phaeochromocytoma should be considered in the diagnosis of patients presenting with acute cardiomyopathy.
Management of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy is complex and requires multidisciplinary specialist input.
Pre-operative management of phaeochromocytoma involves alpha-blockade; however, haemodynamic instability in the setting of cardiogenic shock can preclude alpha-blockade use.
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a life-saving intervention which may be considered in cases of acute catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy and cardiogenic shock in order to provide the required haemodynamic support in the initial phase of treatment, enabling the administration of traditional pharmacological agents, including alpha-blockade.
We present an adolescent with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) with bone age advancement and its response to aromatase inhibitors (AIs). A male with XLH, confirmed with a deletion on the PHEX gene, received regular treatment since the first year of life with average growth velocity and height. He had bone age compatible with chronological age until 13 when he had a bone age advancement and a decrease in the predicted final height thought to be due to initiation of oral isotretinoin, which has been previously reported. Then, anastrozole was initiated and maintained concomitant to the rickets treatment for 2 years with bone age stabilization. He had no adverse effects or worsening of bone health markers. As a result, he maintained his height gain and improved his final height Z score compared with the predicted final height at initiating anastrozole. In conclusion, although AIs was a reasonable strategy to stabilize bone age and minimize height impairment, careful monitoring is mandatory to understand its benefits and effects on XLH patients.
Although X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets patients have normal puberty, they can be affected by metabolic and environmental factors that may advance their bone age and impair the predicted final height, similar to the general population.
Isotretinoin may accelerate skeletal maturation during puberty in an adolescent with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.
Aromatase inhibitors showed to be a reasonable strategy to stabilize bone age and minimize height impairment in an adolescent with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.
We describe a case of a 47-year-old patient who presented with severe lactic acidosis, troponinemia, and acute kidney injury after receiving 8 mg of intramuscular dexamethasone for seasonal allergies in the setting of an undiagnosed epinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma. This case was atypical, however, in that the patient exhibited only mildly elevated noninvasive measured blood pressures. Following a period of alpha-adrenergic blockade, the tumor was resected successfully. Steroid administration can precipitate pheochromocytoma crisis that may present unusually as in our patient with mild hypertension but profound lactic acidosis.
Steroids administered via any route can precipitate pheochromocytoma crisis, manifested by excessive catecholamine secretion and associated sequelae from vasoconstriction.
Lack of moderate/severe hypertension on presentation detracts from consideration of pheochromocytoma as a diagnosis.
Lactatemia after steroid administration should prompt work-up for pheochromocytoma, as it can be seen in epinephrine-secreting tumors.
Noninvasive blood pressure measurements may be unreliable during pheochromocytoma crisis due to excessive peripheral vasoconstriction.
There is a close association between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The value of weight loss in the management of patients with T2D has long been known. Loss of 15% or more of body weight can have a disease-modifying effect in people with diabetes inducing remission in a large proportion of patients. Very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) have been proposed as an appealing nutritional strategy for obesity management. The diet was shown to result in significant weight loss in the short, intermediate, and long terms and improvement in body composition parameters as well as glycemic and lipid profiles. The reported case is a 35-year-old man with obesity, dyslipidemia, and T2D for 5 years. Despite the use of five antidiabetic medications, including insulin, HbA1c was 10.1%. A VLCKD through a commercial multidisciplinary weight loss program (PnK method) was prescribed and all medications were discontinued. The method is based on high-biological-value protein preparations and has 5 steps, the first 3 steps (active stage) consist of a VLCKD (600–800 kcal/d) that is low in carbohydrates (<50 g daily from vegetables) and lipids. The amount of proteins ranged between 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight. After only 3 months, the patient lost 20 kg with weight normalization and diabetes remission, and after 2 years of follow-up, the patient remained without the pathologies. Due to the rapid and significant weight loss, VLCKD emerges as a useful tool in T2D remission in patients with obesity.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are conditions that share key pathophysiological mechanisms.
Loss of 15% or more of body weight can have a disease-modifying effect in people with T2D inducing remission in a large proportion of patients.
Diabetes remission should be defined as a return of HbA1c to <6.5% and which persists for at least 3 months in the absence of usual glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy.
The very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD) is a nutritional approach that has significant beneficial effects on anthropometric and metabolic parameters.
Due to the rapid and significant weight loss, VLCKD emerges as a useful tool in T2D remission in patients with obesity.
Mass effect from a goiter is a serious complication with potentially life-threatening consequences. In rare instances, a goiter can compress nearby vessels, compromising cerebral blood flow, which can lead to an ischemic stroke. Ischemic strokes generally occur due to atherogenic or embolic phenomenon, albeit a rare etiology can be due to a mechanical obstruction of great vessels of the neck that provide blood supply to the brain. An unusual example of a similar obstruction is the mass effect of an expansive goiter on the carotid artery (CA) in the neck. We present a rare case of a 90-year-old female who had a historically untreated goiter for 13 years. She presented with symptoms of acute stroke, including right-sided weakness and dysarthria. CT angiogram of the neck revealed a massively enlarged thyroid gland causing compression and intermittent obstruction of the blood flow in the left common CA. Subsequently, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Postoperatively, she had a remarkable recovery of her symptoms of right-sided weakness and dysarthria. Acknowledging stroke as a grave mechanical complication of a large multinodular goiter is crucial for timely and appropriate management to avoid serious consequences.
The natural history of euthyroid multinodular goiters include abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland, which results in local compression of structures in the neck causing neurovascular injury.
Timely diagnosis and surgical management of an enlarging goiter compressing the CA can reduce morbidity from an ischemic stroke.
Ischemic stroke is a rare and dangerous complication of a giant multinodular goiter.
Vânia de Fátima Tonetto-FernandesFaculty of Medicine, Centro Universitário São Camilo, São Paulo, Brasil Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil Darcy Vargas, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil
We describe a rare case of a girl with an initial diagnostic hypothesis of chromosome 8 trisomy based on clinical findings and karyotyping, which identified a structural change in the short arm of chromosome 8 (46,XX,add(8)(p23)). At the age of 7, she developed type 1 diabetes mellitus and started insulin therapy with multiple daily doses, and then she started to use a continuous insulin infusion system (pump) at 10 years of age. At the age of 12, she underwent a molecular study that identified an unbalanced translocation between the short arms of chromosomes 6 and 8 – 46,XX,add(8)(p23).ish der(8)t(6;8)(GS-196I5+;RP-11338B22−).
Patients with an unbalanced translocation between the short arms of chromosomes 6 and 8 – 46,XX,add(8)(p23).ish der(8)t(6;8)(GS-196I5+;RP-11338B22-) may present syndromic features suggestive of chromosome 8 trisomy.
Main characteristics are a prominent forehead, ocular and breast hypertelorism, ocular, external ear and palate abnormalities, a short neck, heart defects, and developmental delay.
Patients with 46,XX,add(8)(p23).ish der(8)t(6;8)(GS-196I5+;RP-11338B22-) may present autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Karyotyping is an essential tool for the diagnosis of chromosomal changes, but it has some limitations.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, array-single nucleotide polymorphism and fluorescence in situ hybridization can help diagnose genetic syndromes in patients with atypical evolution.
Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with endocrine dysfunction (1). The term 'immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome' (IRIS) describes an array of inflammatory conditions that occur during the return of cell-mediated immunity following ART. Graves’ disease (GD) occurs rarely as an IRIS following ART. In this study, we describe the case of a 40-year-old Brazilian female who was diagnosed with HIV following admission with cryptococcal meningitis and salmonellosis. At this time, she was also diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Her CD4 count at diagnosis was 17 cells/µL which rose to 256 cells/µL over the first 3 months of ART. Her HIV viral load, however, consistently remained detectable. When viral suppression was finally achieved 21 months post diagnosis, an incremental CD4 count of 407 cells/µL over the following 6 months ensued. Subsequently, she was diagnosed with a late IRIS to cryptococcus 32 months following initial ART treatment, which manifested as non-resolving lymphadenitis and resolved with high-dose steroids. Following the initiation of ART for 45 months, she developed symptomatic Graves’ hyperthyroidism. At this time, her CD4 count had risen to 941 cells/µL. She has been rendered euthyroid on carbimazole. This case serves to remind us that GD can occur as an IRIS post ART and typically has a delayed presentation.
Endocrinologists should be aware of the endocrine manifestations of HIV disease, in particular, thyroid pathology.
Endocrinologists should be aware that IRIS can occur following the initiation of ART.
Thyroid dysfunction can occur post ART of which Graves' disease (GD) is the most common thyroid manifestation.
GD as a manifestation of ART-induced IRIS can have a delayed presentation.
Infectious disease physicians should be aware of endocrine manifestations associated with HIV and ART.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the type of thyroid cancer that has the worst prognosis. It usually presents as a rapidly growing cervical mass that generates compressive symptoms. Its association with thyrotoxicosis is rare. A 76-year-old woman, with no contributory history, presented with a 3-month course of fast-growing cervical tumor, associated with tenderness, cough, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed goiter, localized erythema, and a painful and stone tumor dependent on the right thyroid lobe. Due to the malignant findings of the thyroid ultrasound, the patient underwent a thyroid core needle biopsy, which indicated ATC. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone, elevated free thyroxine (fT4), and increased thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies. At the beginning, we considered that the etiology of thyrotoxicosis was secondary to subacute thyroiditis (SAT) after SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the immunochromatography result and chest tomography findings. The result of markedly elevated TPO antibodies left this etiology more remote. Therefore, we suspected Graves’ disease as an etiology; however, thyroid histopathology and ultrasound did not show compatible findings. Therefore, we suspect that the main etiology of thyrotoxicosis in the patient was the destruction of the thyroid follicles caused by a rapid invasion of malignant cells, which is responsible for the consequent release of preformed thyroid hormone. ATC is a rare endocrine neoplasm with high mortality; it may be associated with thyrotoxicosis, whose etiology can be varied; therefore, differential diagnosis is important for proper management.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the thyroid cancer with the worst prognosis and the highest mortality.
The association of anaplastic thyroid cancer with thyrotoxicosis is rare, and a differential diagnosis is necessary to provide adequate treatment.
Due to the current pandemic, in patients with thyrotoxicosis, it is important to rule out SARS-CoV-2 as an etiology.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer, due to its aggressive behavior and rapid growth, can destroy thyroid follicular cells, generating preformed thyroid hormone release, being responsible for thyrotoxicosis.
The first case of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in Peru was reported on March 6, 2020. As of September 7, 2020, about 700 000 cases of COVID-19 resulting in 29,976 deaths have been confirmed by the Ministry of Health. Among COVID-19 patients with co-morbidities, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized as a risk factor for severe disease. Patients with T2DM may experience diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic (HHS) if infected with the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Regular blood analysis including arterial blood gas is essential in monitoring the care of patients with T2DM infected with COVID-19. We report five cases of DKA in patients with underlying T2DM that presented with severe COVID-19 infection.
COVID-19 may cause acute metabolic dysregulations in patients with T2DM.
It is important to monitor basic metabolic panel (BMP) and arterial blood gases (ABGs) in patients with COVID-19 since metabolic complications can develop unexpectedly.
Patients with T2DM develop an inflammatory syndrome characterized by severe insulin resistance and B cell dysfunction that can lead to DKA.