We present a case of a 42-year-old man who developed acute onset severe hypertriglyceridaemia within days of commencing olanzapine therapy. Despite having a family history of metabolic syndrome, he had no personal history of hyperlipidaemia and had normal fasting lipids 1 week prior to treatment initiation. His case is consistent with a diagnosis of multifactorial chylomicronaemia syndrome with a possible undiagnosed underlying genetic lipid metabolism disorder. Our case highlights the difficulty in identifying patients at risk of severe hypertriglyceridaemia prior to the commencement of olanzapine.
Atypical antipsychotic medications, in particular olanzapine and clozapine, are associated with metabolic side effects.
Olanzapine can precipitate acute onset severe hypertriglyceridaemia consistent with multifactorial chylomicronaemia syndrome.
It is difficult to predict individuals at risk of olanzapine-induced hypertriglyceridaemia.
This case demonstrates the importance of metabolic screening prior to the commencement of olanzapine and the possibility of repeating fasting serum lipids soon thereafter.
Takashi MatsuzakaDepartment of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Transborder Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
In this study, we herein describe a 47-year-old Japanese woman who manifested inheritable non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and severe dyslipidemia. Interestingly, her NASH progression was ameliorated by treatment with a sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. This inheritability prompted us to comprehensively decode her genomic information using whole-exome sequencing. We found the well-established I148M mutation in PNPLA3 as well as mutations in LGALS3 and PEMT for her NASH. Mutations in GCKR may contribute to both NASH and dyslipidemia. We further mined gene mutations potentially responsible for her manifestations that led to the identification of a novel M188fs mutation in MUL1 that may be causally associated with her mitochondrial dysfunction. Our case may provide some clues to better understand this spectrum of disease as well as the rationale for selecting medications.
While the PNPLA3 I148M mutation is well-established, accumulation of other mutations may accelerate susceptibility to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
NASH and dyslipidemia may be intertwined biochemically and genetically through several key genes.
SGLT2 inhibitors emerge as promising treatment for NASH albeit with interindividual variation in efficacy. Genetic background may explain the mechanisms behind the variation.
A novel dysfunctional mutation in MUL1 may lead to metabolic inflexibilities through impaired mitochondrial dynamics and function.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2) is one of the important causes of low-grade chronic inflammation (meta inflammation) seen in almost all tissues in the body. Other possible mechanisms involved in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with DM-2 are the hypertonicity of the peripheral sympathetic nerves and hyperinsulinemia effects on the autonomous nervous system activity. These further suggests that abnormalities in glucose homeostasis influence the hyperproliferation of the prostate cells resulting in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Similarly, hepatic steatosis, a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence among patients with DM-2, is as high as 75%. NAFLD has no symptoms in most diabetic patients. In this study, we present a case of a 64-year-old Black male who had worsening urinary urgency and hesitancy for 4 months, with increasing abdominal girth. Patient was found to have symptoms, diagnostic studies, and physical exam findings indicative of BPH and fatty liver disease. He was treated with hepato-protective medications, tighter control of his blood glucose levels, and blood pressure meds for 13 months. Upon follow-up, most of his symptoms were resolved. Timeline of BPH resolution and decrease in liver size following treatment suggest that DM-2 has a strong correlation with the development of BPH and fatty liver disease in most patients living with diabetes.
Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) tend to have significantly lower serum PSA level, lower testosterone levels, and larger prostate volume compared to non-diabetic male patients.
Patients with DM-2 have higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis, liver cirrhosis, and end-stage liver failure.
The role of metformin in reducing hepatic steatosis as stated by several studies is yet to be validated as our patient has been on metformin for 22 years for the management of DM-2 with fatty liver disease.
We encountered a case of childhood-onset lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis, based on the MRI and endocrinological findings, with decreased function of the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. Three years after the diagnosis, the patient developed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which was effectively treated by growth hormone (GH) supplementation. The present case demonstrated that NASH can be effectively treated by short-term GH supplementation, even in late childhood.
In recent years, the efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy in normalizing the liver function of adult-onset growth hormone deficiency patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been reported.
Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis is a very rare disease, particularly in childhood.
We here presented a rare case of a child with lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis who developed NASH and showed substantial improvement in liver function after growth hormone treatment.
Drinking fruit juice is an increasingly popular health trend, as it is widely perceived as a source of vitamins and nutrients. However, high fructose load in fruit beverages can have harmful metabolic effects. When consumed in high amounts, fructose is linked with hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver and insulin resistance. We present an unusual case of a patient with severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of 9182 mg/dL) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, who reported a daily intake of 15 L of fruit juice over several weeks before presentation. The patient was referred to our emergency department with blood glucose of 527 mg/dL and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 17.3%. Interestingly, features of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state were absent. The patient was overweight with an otherwise unremarkable physical exam. Lipase levels, liver function tests and inflammatory markers were closely monitored and remained unremarkable. The initial therapeutic approach included i.v. volume resuscitation, insulin and heparin. Additionally, plasmapheresis was performed to prevent potentially fatal complications of hypertriglyceridemia. The patient was counseled on balanced nutrition and detrimental effects of fruit beverages. He was discharged home 6 days after admission. At a 2-week follow-up visit, his triglyceride level was 419 mg/dL, total cholesterol was 221 mg/dL and HbA1c was 12.7%. The present case highlights the role of fructose overconsumption as a contributory factor for severe hypertriglyceridemia in a patient with newly diagnosed diabetes. We discuss metabolic effects of uncontrolled fructose ingestion, as well as the interplay of primary and secondary factors, in the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridemia accompanied by diabetes.
Excessive dietary fructose intake can exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia in patients with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and absence of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.
When consumed in large amounts, fructose is considered a highly lipogenic nutrient linked with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and de novo hepatic lipogenesis (DNL).
Severe lipemia (triglyceride plasma level > 9000 mg/dL) could be asymptomatic and not necessarily complicated by acute pancreatitis, although lipase levels should be closely monitored.
Plasmapheresis is an effective adjunct treatment option for rapid lowering of high serum lipids, which is paramount to prevent acute complications of severe hypertriglyceridemia.
Lars Henning PedersenDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
This rare case describes the course of a pregnancy in a patient with a disseminated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor. The patient received treatment with first-generation somatostatin ligand receptor (SLR) every 4 weeks and had stable disease for several years before her pregnancy. First-generation SLR treatment was initially paused after detection of the pregnancy. During pregnancy, the patient experienced moderate gastro-intestinal discomfort and fatigue, which was considered predominantly pregnancy related. However, since symptoms could be linked to the patient’s cancer, treatment was resumed after the first trimester. Chromogranin-A measurements remained stable throughout pregnancy and was paralleled by the absence of diarrhea and only minor flushing. She gave birth by elective caesarean section in week 37 to a healthy baby. Subsequent follow up imaging immediately after and 10 months postpartum showed no disease progression. The safety profile of SLR treatment during pregnancy in the context of disseminated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) is discussed.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are rare cancers often occurring in the gastro-intestinal tract or lungs.
Many patients with NEN live for several years with disseminated disease.
SLR treatment has been given to pregnant patients before; often patients with acromegaly. Pregnancies are reported uneventful.
This patient completed an uneventful pregnancy while receiving SLR treatment for disseminated neuroendocrine disease and gave birth to a healthy baby.
More research regarding long term effects and safety signals of SLR treatment during pregnancy are much needed.
Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET) is a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that is also a primary hepatic tumor. Patients are present with almost no specific clinical symptoms and typically present with negative test results and atypical imaging characteristics; therefore, the differentiation of PHNET from other types of primary hepatic masses can be very difficult. In this article, we describe a case of PHNET that mimicked a liver helminth infection in a 57-year-old man. The diagnosis of PHNET in this patient was challenging, and the final diagnosis was based on imaging, histopathology features, and long-term follow-up.
An uncommon type of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET).
Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare NET lesions found in the liver, characterized by non-specific clinical and imaging results, which can be easily confused with other liver lesions, including HCC and parasitic lesions.
To have a conclusive diagnosis and classification, a mixture of many medical assessment techniques, such as imaging, gastrointestinal endoscopy, nuclear medicine, anatomy, including histopathology, and immunohistochemistry, is essential.
Middle ear adenomas with neuroendocrine features (ANEF) are rare, with an estimated 150 reported cases. They usually pursue an indolent clinical course. Four reported cases of middle ear ANEF with distant metastases were treated with surgery, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy. To date, no successful systemic treatment for malignant behaviour of this rare tumour has been reported. Long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSAs) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have been used in well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), but their use has never been described in cases of metastatic middle ear ANEF. We report two patients with grade 1 middle ear ANEF treated with surgery and EBRT. They had stable disease for several years, until clinical symptoms appeared and extensive metastases were detected on 68Ga-DOTA0-Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) PET/CT. Treatment with long-acting SSA was started, with stable disease for 1 year. Afterwards, despite undergoing local treatments, both patients presented progressive disease. Due to high-uptake metastases at 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, both cases underwent four cycles of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE, which secured disease control and improvement of quality of life in both. Similar to other well-differentiated NETs, SSA and PRRT could constitute efficacious therapeutic options in metastatic middle ear ANEF. Its neuroendocrine differentiation, potential to metastasize and somatostatin receptor type 2 expression prompt consideration and management of this disease as a neuroendocrine neoplasm.
Our cases oppose the 2017 WHO classification of middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine features as a benign disease.
This entity warrants long-term follow-up, as local recurrence or persistence of disease is reported in up to 18% of surgically treated patients.
PET/CT scan with 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (SSA) can be used for staging of metastatic middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine features.
Unlabelled SSA and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled SSA can be the first systemic therapeutic options for patients with advanced middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine features.
Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by the absence of subcutaneous adipose tissue, leptin deficiency and severe metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. The most common mutation occurs in BCSL2 which encodes seipin, a protein involved in adipogenesis. We report a patient with BSCL who was diagnosed with diabetes at 11 years old. He was started on metformin 1000 mg twice daily, which lowered glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to less than 7%. Four months later, HbA1c raised above 7.5%, indicating secondary failure to metformin. Therefore, we added the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) agonist, pioglitazone. Since then and for the last 5 years his HbA1c has been within the normal range. These findings indicate that pioglitazone should be considered as a valid alternative in the treatment of diabetes in BSCL patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first specific report of successful long-term treatment with pioglitazone in a patient with BSCL.
Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a recessive genetic disorder associated with severe insulin resistance and early onset diabetes, usually around puberty. Failure of oral antidiabetic medication occurs within the first years of treatment in BSCL patients.
When failure to achieve metabolic control with metformin occurs, pioglitazone may be a safe option, lowering insulin resistance and improving both the metabolic control and lipodystrophic phenotype.
Herein we show that pioglitazone can be a safe and efficient alternative in the long-term treatment of BSCL patients with diabetes.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that results in the accumulation of sulfate esters which go on to cause neurological deterioration and mental delay, skin changes, and dysmorphism. The disease can be categorized into three subtypes based on the age of onset: neonatal, late infantile, or juvenile. Our patient is a 2.5-year-old girl, the only child of a healthy couple. Prior to the presentation of the disease, she had not been noted to have any previous health complications. The condition began at the age of 6 months with developmental regression and global hypotonia. Following thorough evaluation and testing, the patient was diagnosed with severe late infantile MSD, although some features, such as minimal mental deterioration, minimal dysmorphic facial features, and minimal organ enlargement, did not fully correlate with the diagnosis, since in cases of severe forms of the condition these features are almost always quite marked. The unexpected minimalism of some of the patient’s MSD signs in spite of the severity of her MSD condition made her case worth further studying.
Treating dermatologic signs and symptoms greatly eased our patient’s discomfort.
We would suggest the use of appropriate supportive treatment for symptom management regardless of the life expectancy of the patient.
As regards the diagnosis of MLD, given that in some cases the patient may present with irregular features of the condition, a genetic evaluation may be useful for accurate diagnosis.
If motor function impairment is followed by dermatologic involvement, as seen in our patient and in many cases in the literature, MSD must be considered, and additional tests should be done to rule it out.