Patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs, especially methotrexate (MTX), rarely develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), known as MTX-related LPD (MTX–LPD). The primary site of MTX–LPD is often extranodal. This is the first reported case of MTX–LPD in the pituitary. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of oculomotor nerve palsy and multiple subcutaneous nodules. She had been treated with MTX for 11 years for rheumatoid arthritis. Computed tomography showed multiple masses in the orbit, sinuses, lung fields, anterior mediastinum, kidney, and subcutaneous tissue. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass. She was diagnosed with hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus based on endocrine examination. Although pituitary biopsy could not be performed, we concluded that the pituitary lesion was from MTX–LPD, similar to the lesions in the sinuses, anterior mediastinum, and subcutaneous tissue, which showed polymorphic LPD on biopsy. MTX was discontinued, and methylprednisolone was administered to improve the neurologic symptoms. After several weeks, there was marked improvement of all lesions, including the pituitary lesion, but the pituitary function did not improve. When pituitary lesions are caused by MTX–LPD, the possibility of anterior hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus needs to be considered. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of early diagnosis and treatment of MTX–LPD in restoring pituitary dysfunction.
Pituitary lesions from MTX–LPD may cause hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus.
Pituitary metastasis of malignant lymphoma and primary pituitary lymphoma, which have the same tissue types with MTX–LPD, have poor prognosis, but the lesions of MTX–LPD can regress only after MTX discontinuation.
In cases of pituitary lesions alone, a diagnosis of MTX–LPD may be difficult, unless pituitary biopsy is performed. This possibility should be considered in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs.
Pituitary hypofunction and diabetes insipidus may persist, even after regression of the lesions on imaging due to MTX discontinuation.
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome that may present with hypocalcemia due to primary hypoparathyroidism (PH) at any age. We report a new diagnosis of 22q11.2DS in a 57-year-old man who presented with symptomatic hypocalcemia. It is important to consider genetic causes of hypocalcemia due to PH regardless of age.
It is important to discard genetic cause of primary hypoparathyroidism in a patient without autoimmune disease or prior neck surgery.
A new diagnosis of a hereditary disease has familial implications and needs genetic counselling.
It is also important to discard other syndrome’s comorbidities.
G K DimitriadisWarwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK Division of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
R RaoWarwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK
D K GrammatopoulosDivision of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Histopathology, Coventry and Warwickshire, Pathology Service, UHCW NHS Trust, Coventry, UK
H S RandevaWarwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
M O WeickertWarwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK
N MurthyWarwick Institute for the Study of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism (WISDEM Centre), The Arden NET Centre, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, UHCW NHS Trust, ENETS CoE, Coventry, UK
We report the case of a 70-year-old previously healthy female who presented acutely to the Accident and Emergency department with left-sided vasomotor symptoms including reduced muscle tone, weakness upon walking and slurred speech. Physical examination confirmed hemiparesis with VIIth nerve palsy and profound hepatomegaly. A random glucose was low at 1.7 mmol/l, which upon correction resolved her symptoms. In hindsight, the patient recalled having had similar episodes periodically over the past 3 months to which she did not give much attention. While hospitalized, she continued having episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia during most nights, requiring treatment with i.v. dextrose and/or glucagon. Blood tests including insulin and C-peptide were invariably suppressed, in correlation with low glucose. A Synacthen stimulation test was normal (Cort (0′) 390 nmol/l, Cort (30′) 773 nmol/l). A computed tomography scan showed multiple lobulated masses in the abdomen, liver and pelvis. An ultrasound guided biopsy of one of the pelvic masses was performed. Immunohistochemistry supported the diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) positive for CD34 and CD117. A diagnosis of a non islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) secondary to an IGF2 secreting GIST was confirmed with further biochemical investigations (IGF2=96.5 nmol/l; IGF2:IGF1 ratio 18.9, ULN <10). Treatment with growth hormone resolved the patient's hypoglycaemic symptoms and subsequent targeted therapy with Imatinib was successful in controlling disease progression over an 8-year observation period.
NICTH can be a rare complication of GISTs that may manifest with severe hypoglycaemia and neuroglucopenic symptoms.
NICTH can masquerade as other pathologies thus causing diagnostic confusion.
Histological confirmation of GIST induced NICTH and exclusion of other conditions causing hypoglycaemia is essential.
Mutational analysis of GISTs should be carried out in all cases as it guides treatment decision.
Tailored management of hypoglycaemia, in this case using growth hormone and targeted cyto-reductive therapy, minimizes the risk of possible life-threatening complications.
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by pigmented lesions of the skin and mucosae along with cardiac, endocrine, cutaneous, and neural myxomatous tumors. Mutations in the PRKAR1A gene have been identified in ∼70% of the CNC cases reported worldwide. A 30-year-old male was referred to the endocrinology clinic with suspected acromegaly. He had a history of recurrent atrial myxoma for the past 8 years for which he underwent repeated surgeries. Presently, he complained of having headache, excessive snoring, sweating, and also noticed increase in his shoe size. Evaluation for acromegaly revealed elevated levels of GH in random as well as in suppressed condition. Magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed enlarged sella with microadenoma in the left anterior pituitary. Screening of PRKAR1A gene was carried out for the patient, his parents and siblings who were available and willing to undergo the test. The patient was diagnosed to have the rare CNC syndrome characterized by recurrent atrial myxoma and acromegaly due to a novel 22 bp insertion mutation in PRKAR1A which was predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Screening the available family members revealed the absence of this mutation in them except the elder brother who also tested positive for this mutation. The present study reports on a novel PRKAR1A insertion mutation in a patient with acromegaly and left atrial myxoma in CNC.
Identification of a novel deleterious PRKAR1A insertion mutation causing CNC.
It is important that patients with cardiac myxoma be investigated for presence of endocrine overactivity suggestive of CNC.
PRKAR1A mutation analysis should be undertaken in such cases to confirm the diagnosis in the patients as well as first degree relatives.
This case highlights an important aspect of diagnosis, clinical course, and management of this rare condition.