Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a subtype of epithelial ovarian tumors, with sertoliform endometrioid carcinomas being a rare variant. We report a case of a previously healthy premenopausal woman presenting with androgenic symptoms in the form of hirsutism and male pattern alopecia. On further testing, she was found to have high levels of luteinizing hormone and total testosterone levels, and imaging revealed a large pelvic abdominal mass in the right ovary. She underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopy and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma. Her symptoms improved significantly on follow-up. Androgenic tumors might not be common in premenopausal women; however, it is important to maintain a high level of suspicion in patients presenting with virilizing symptoms especially of rapid progression.
Our 47-year-old patient presented with virilizing symptoms that were rapidly progressing, which raises the suspicion of an underlying androgen secreting neoplasm.
Sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma (SEC) is an extremely rare variant of endometrioid carcinomas and tend to present at an earlier stage as compared to most endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary.
Recognition of SEC in virilizing patients is important as it is a well-differentiated, low-grade malignancy with a good prognosis when confined to the ovary.
Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by the absence of subcutaneous adipose tissue, leptin deficiency and severe metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. The most common mutation occurs in BCSL2 which encodes seipin, a protein involved in adipogenesis. We report a patient with BSCL who was diagnosed with diabetes at 11 years old. He was started on metformin 1000 mg twice daily, which lowered glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to less than 7%. Four months later, HbA1c raised above 7.5%, indicating secondary failure to metformin. Therefore, we added the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) agonist, pioglitazone. Since then and for the last 5 years his HbA1c has been within the normal range. These findings indicate that pioglitazone should be considered as a valid alternative in the treatment of diabetes in BSCL patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first specific report of successful long-term treatment with pioglitazone in a patient with BSCL.
Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a recessive genetic disorder associated with severe insulin resistance and early onset diabetes, usually around puberty. Failure of oral antidiabetic medication occurs within the first years of treatment in BSCL patients.
When failure to achieve metabolic control with metformin occurs, pioglitazone may be a safe option, lowering insulin resistance and improving both the metabolic control and lipodystrophic phenotype.
Herein we show that pioglitazone can be a safe and efficient alternative in the long-term treatment of BSCL patients with diabetes.
Sunita M C De SousaEndocrine and Metabolic Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital School of Medicine, University of Adelaide Adult Genetics Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital Center for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology and University of South Australia Alliance, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
A 26-year-old man presented with a combination of permanent neonatal diabetes due to pancreatic aplasia, complex congenital heart disease, central hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency, structural renal abnormalities with proteinuria, umbilical hernia, neurocognitive impairment and dysmorphic features. His older brother had diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic hypoplasia, complex congenital heart disease, hypospadias and umbilical hernia. Their father had an atrial septal defect, umbilical hernia and diabetes mellitus diagnosed incidentally in adulthood on employment screening. The proband’s paternal grandmother had a congenital heart defect. Genetic testing of the proband revealed a novel heterozygous missense variant (Chr18:g.19761441T>C, c.1330T>C, p.Cys444Arg) in exon 4 of GATA6, which is class 5 (pathogenic) using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines and is likely to account for his multisystem disorder. The same variant was detected in his brother and father, but not his paternal grandmother. This novel variant of GATA6 likely occurred de novo in the father with autosomal dominant inheritance in the proband and his brother. The case is exceptional as very few families with monogenic diabetes due to GATA6 mutations have been reported to date and we describe a new link between GATA6 and renal pathology.
Monogenic diabetes should be suspected in patients presenting with syndromic features, multisystem congenital disease, neonatal-onset diabetes and/or a suggestive family history.
Recognition and identification of genetic diabetes may improve patient understanding and empowerment and allow for better tailored management.
Identification of a genetic disorder may have important implications for family planning.