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Nnennaya U Opara Emergency Medicine, Charleston Area Medical Centre, Institute for Academic Medicine, Charleston, West Virginia, USA

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Summary

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2) is one of the important causes of low-grade chronic inflammation (meta inflammation) seen in almost all tissues in the body. Other possible mechanisms involved in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with DM-2 are the hypertonicity of the peripheral sympathetic nerves and hyperinsulinemia effects on the autonomous nervous system activity. These further suggests that abnormalities in glucose homeostasis influence the hyperproliferation of the prostate cells resulting in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Similarly, hepatic steatosis, a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence among patients with DM-2, is as high as 75%. NAFLD has no symptoms in most diabetic patients. In this study, we present a case of a 64-year-old Black male who had worsening urinary urgency and hesitancy for 4 months, with increasing abdominal girth. Patient was found to have symptoms, diagnostic studies, and physical exam findings indicative of BPH and fatty liver disease. He was treated with hepato-protective medications, tighter control of his blood glucose levels, and blood pressure meds for 13 months. Upon follow-up, most of his symptoms were resolved. Timeline of BPH resolution and decrease in liver size following treatment suggest that DM-2 has a strong correlation with the development of BPH and fatty liver disease in most patients living with diabetes.

Learning points

  • Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) tend to have significantly lower serum PSA level, lower testosterone levels, and larger prostate volume compared to non-diabetic male patients.

  • Patients with DM-2 have higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis, liver cirrhosis, and end-stage liver failure.

  • The role of metformin in reducing hepatic steatosis as stated by several studies is yet to be validated as our patient has been on metformin for 22 years for the management of DM-2 with fatty liver disease.

Open access
Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen Diabetes and Thyroid Center, Theptarin Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

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Soontaree Nakasatien Diabetes and Thyroid Center, Theptarin Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

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Tsz Fung Tsoi Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China

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Cadmon K P Lim Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China

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Thep Himathongkam Diabetes and Thyroid Center, Theptarin Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

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Juliana C N Chan Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China
Asia Diabetes Foundation, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China

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Summary

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1B) gene is located on chromosome 17q12. It is a transcription factor implicated in the early embryonic development of multiple organs. HNF1B-associated disease is a multi-system disorder with variable clinical phenotypes. There are increasing reports suggesting that the 17q12 deletion syndrome should be suspected in patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5) due to the deletion of HNF1B gene. In contrast to classical 17q12 syndrome in childhood with neurological disorders and autism, patients with HNF1B-MODY deletion rarely had neuropsychological disorders or learning disabilities. The diagnosis of 17q12 deletion syndrome highlighted the phenotypic heterogeneity of HNF1B-MODY patients. In this study, we report the clinical course of a Thai woman with young-onset diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia as a predominant feature due to HNF1B deletion as part of the 17q12 deletion syndrome. Our findings and others suggest that hypertriglyceridemia should be considered a syndromic feature of HNF1B-MODY. Our case also highlights the need to use sequencing with dosage analyses to detect point mutations and copy number variations to avoid missing a whole deletion of HNF1B.

Learning points

  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5) may be caused by heterozygous point mutations or whole gene deletion of HNF1B. Recent studies revealed that complete deletion of the HNF1B gene may be part of the 17q12 deletion syndrome with multi-system involvement.

  • The length of the deletion can contribute to the phenotypic variability in patients with HNF1B-MODY due to whole gene deletion.

  • Using next-generation sequencing alone to diagnose MODY could miss a whole gene deletion or copy number variations. Specialized detection methods such as microarray analysis or low-pass whole genome sequencing are required to accurately diagnose HNF1B-MODY as a component of the 17q12 deletion syndrome.

  • Molecular diagnosis is necessary to distinguish other acquired cystic kidney diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes which could phenocopy HNF1B-MODY.

  • Hypertriglyceridemia is a possible metabolic feature in patients with HNF1B-MODY due to 17q12 deletion syndrome.

Open access
Matthew J Verheyden Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia
Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Natassia Rodrigo Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia
Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Nepean Hospital, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia

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Anthony J Gill Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
NSW Health Pathology, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia

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Sarah J Glastras Department of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia
Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Summary

Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare and chronic disease characterised by yellow-brown, atrophic, telangiectatic plaques usually located on the lower extremities, with pathological features of collagen necrobiosis and dermal inflammation. Most cases are seen in those with diabetes mellitus, particularly type 1 diabetes (T1DM), and many without diabetes have evidence of abnormal glucose tolerance or family history of autoimmune disease. In this study, we describe four patients with NL and T1DM. A common theme is late identification and delay in diagnosis. Hence, we discuss the clinical features, need for clinicopathological correlation, and the management and prognostic implications for this distinctive entity. While most remain relatively asymptomatic, others progress to debilitating disease with pruritus, dysesthesia, and pain. Pain is often intense in the presence of ulcerated plaques, a morbid complication of NL. Diagnosis requires the integration of both clinical and histopathological findings. NL has proven a challenging condition to treat, and despite the numerous therapeutic modalities available, there is no standard of care. Hence, in this study, we provide an overview of current management strategies available for NL.

Learning points

  • Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is classically seen in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  • Koebner phenomenon, defined as the appearance of new skin lesions on previously unaffected skin secondary to trauma, is a well-recognised feature in NL.

  • Background skin phototype contributes to variable yellow appearance of lesions in NL.

  • Diagnosis of NL requires careful clinicopathological correlation.

  • NL is a chronic disease often refractory to treatment leading to significant morbidity for the patient and a management conundrum for the multidisciplinary healthcare team.

  • No standard therapeutic regimen has been established for the management of NL.

Open access
Eimear Mary O’Donovan Department of Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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Begona Sanchez-Lechuga Department of Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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Emma Prehn Department of Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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Maria Michelle Byrne Department of Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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Summary

The coexistence of autoimmune diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes (MODY) is rare. The absence of pancreatic autoantibodies is a key factor prompting MODY genetic testing. In this study, we report three cases of young-onset diabetes with progressive beta-cell dysfunction, strongly positive glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies, and genetic confirmation of pathogenic gene variants of HNF-1A, HNF-4A, and ABCC8-MODY. The first case is a woman diagnosed with HNF-1A-MODY diabetes more than 30 years after her diagnosis of adult-onset diabetes at 25 years. She required insulin after her fourth pregnancy. She became ketotic on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) and subsequently, her GAD antibodies tested positive. The second case is a woman diagnosed with diabetes at 17 years who was subsequently diagnosed with HNF-4A-MODY after many hypoglycaemic episodes on low-dose insulin. GAD antibodies were strongly positive. The last case is a man diagnosed with diabetes at 26 years who was well controlled on OHAs and required insulin years later due to sudden deterioration in glycaemic control. His ABCC8-MODY was diagnosed upon realisation of strong family history and his GAD antibodies tested positive. All subjects are now treated with insulin. Less than 1% of subjects with MODY have positive autoantibodies. These cases highlight individuals who may have two different types of diabetes simultaneously or consecutively. Deterioration of glycaemic control in subjects with MODY diabetes should highlight the need to look for the emergence of autoantibodies. At each clinic visit, one should update the family history as MODY was diagnosed in each case after the development of diabetes in their offspring.

Learning points

  • These cases highlight the rare coexistence of autoimmune diabetes and MODY.

  • Deterioration of glycaemic control in subjects with MODY diabetes should highlight the emergence of autoantibodies.

  • One should revise and update the family history as the diagnosis of MODY was made after the development of diabetes in offspring.

  • Understanding the spectrum of diabetes allows for precision medicine.

Open access
Mauricio Alvarez Sanitas EPS, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia

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Oswaldo Rincon Sanitas EPS, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia

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Alejandra Alvarado Sanitas EPS, Bogotá, Colombia

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Francisco Puentes Universidad del Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia

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Summary

We present the case of a 23-year-old patient with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY 3) and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). There is no known correlation between MODY 3 and POI, although POI can impair glucose metabolism, and MODY can cause microvascular complications such as POI. We did not find literature describing a correlation between these two pathologies nor did we find similar cases described in the literature.

Learning points

  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY 3) is an infrequent cause of diabetes that should be considered in young patients with atypical presentation of type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

  • MODY 3 can be associated with microvascular complications of diabetes, which is why it is important to diagnose as early as possible.

  • Impairment of glucose metabolism has been demonstrated in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency and menopause.

Open access
Maheswaran Dhanasekaran Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Siddharth Narayanan Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

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Ioannis Mastoris Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York City, New York, USA

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Suchita Mehta Northwell Health, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, USA

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Summary

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) induce osmotic diuresis by inhibiting the proximal renal tubular reabsorption of the filtered glucose load, which in turn can occasionally lead to severe dehydration and hypotension amidst other adverse effects. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on canagliflozin, a SGLT2i. The patient was brought to the emergency room following a motor vehicle accident. He was confused and had an altered mental status. His blood alcohol and urine toxicology screens were negative. Initial investigations revealed that he had severe hyponatremia with euglycemic ketoacidosis. The adverse condition was reversed with close monitoring and timely management, and the patient was eventually discharged. This is the first report to suggest hyponatremia as a potentially serious adverse effect following SGLT2i therapy. Its impact on the renal tubule handling of sodium and water is not yet well characterized. While further studies are warranted to understand better the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with SGLT2i-induced adverse effects, timely dose reduction or perhaps even its temporary discontinuation may be recommended to prevent complications.

Learning points

  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are usually well-tolerated, but some serious adverse effects have been documented.

  • Our case report suggests hyponatremia as a potential, rare side effect of SGLT2i and makes physicians aware of the occurrence of such life-threatening but preventable complications.

  • Timely and close monitoring of the patient, with temporary discontinuation of this drug, may be recommended towards effective management.

  • Studies demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of SGLT2i-related electrolyte derangements are warranted.

Open access
Arunan Sriravindrarajah Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Amelia Fernandes Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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Ted Wu Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Samantha Hocking Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Summary

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) accounts for approximately 50% of cases of MODY. First-line treatment with sulfonylureas has been well established for individuals with MODY3. In contrast, the use of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the treatment of individuals with MODY3 remains unclear. This case illustrates the in vivo effect of an SGLT2 inhibitor in a 30-year-old woman with MODY3 with poor glycaemic control despite the treatment with supramaximal doses of sulfonylurea and metformin. The addition of a SGLT2 inhibitor resulted in a rapid improvement in glycaemic control without any hypoglycaemic episodes. This case suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors may be an effective and potent treatment option in addition to sulfonylureas for individuals with MODY3.

Learning points

  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) arises from mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene, which controls the expression of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys.

  • Paradoxically, despite individuals with MODY3 having reduced expression of SGLT2, SGLT2 inhibitors induce higher glycosuria in individuals with MODY3 compared to individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • SGLT2 inhibitors may be an effective treatment for achieving glycaemic control in individuals with MODY3.

Open access
Ana Dugic Department for Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Michael Kryk Department for Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Claudia Mellenthin Department of Surgery, HFR Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Christoph Braig Department for Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Lorenzo Catanese Department for Nephrology, Angiology and Rheumatology, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Sandy Petermann Department for Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Jürgen Kothmann Department for Nephrology, Angiology and Rheumatology, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Steffen Mühldorfer Department for Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Bayreuth University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Bayreuth, Germany

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Summary

Drinking fruit juice is an increasingly popular health trend, as it is widely perceived as a source of vitamins and nutrients. However, high fructose load in fruit beverages can have harmful metabolic effects. When consumed in high amounts, fructose is linked with hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver and insulin resistance. We present an unusual case of a patient with severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of 9182 mg/dL) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, who reported a daily intake of 15 L of fruit juice over several weeks before presentation. The patient was referred to our emergency department with blood glucose of 527 mg/dL and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 17.3%. Interestingly, features of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state were absent. The patient was overweight with an otherwise unremarkable physical exam. Lipase levels, liver function tests and inflammatory markers were closely monitored and remained unremarkable. The initial therapeutic approach included i.v. volume resuscitation, insulin and heparin. Additionally, plasmapheresis was performed to prevent potentially fatal complications of hypertriglyceridemia. The patient was counseled on balanced nutrition and detrimental effects of fruit beverages. He was discharged home 6 days after admission. At a 2-week follow-up visit, his triglyceride level was 419 mg/dL, total cholesterol was 221 mg/dL and HbA1c was 12.7%. The present case highlights the role of fructose overconsumption as a contributory factor for severe hypertriglyceridemia in a patient with newly diagnosed diabetes. We discuss metabolic effects of uncontrolled fructose ingestion, as well as the interplay of primary and secondary factors, in the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridemia accompanied by diabetes.

Learning points

  • Excessive dietary fructose intake can exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia in patients with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and absence of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.

  • When consumed in large amounts, fructose is considered a highly lipogenic nutrient linked with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and de novo hepatic lipogenesis (DNL).

  • Severe lipemia (triglyceride plasma level > 9000 mg/dL) could be asymptomatic and not necessarily complicated by acute pancreatitis, although lipase levels should be closely monitored.

  • Plasmapheresis is an effective adjunct treatment option for rapid lowering of high serum lipids, which is paramount to prevent acute complications of severe hypertriglyceridemia.

Open access
Darran Mc Donald Department of Medicine, Mayo University Hospital, Mayo, Ireland
Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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Tara Mc Donnell Department of Medicine, Mayo University Hospital, Mayo, Ireland

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Rachel Katherine Crowley Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

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Elizabeth Brosnan Department of Medicine, Mayo University Hospital, Mayo, Ireland

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Summary

Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disturbance in hospitalised patients and is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. Patients with schizophrenia are particularly susceptible to hyponatraemia, in part due to the close association between this condition and primary polydipsia. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with schizophrenia and primary polydipsia who was receiving inpatient psychiatric care. She became increasingly confused, had multiple episodes of vomiting, and collapsed 1 week after being commenced on quetiapine 300 mg. On examination, she was hypertensive and her Glasgow coma scale was nine. She had a fixed gaze palsy and a rigid, flexed posture. Investigations revealed extreme hyponatraemia with a serum sodium of 97 mmol/L. A CT brain demonstrated diffused cerebral oedema with sulcal and ventricular effacement. A urine sodium and serum osmolality were consistent with SIAD, which was stimulated by the introduction of quetiapine. The antidiuretic effect of vasopressin limited the kidney’s ability to excrete free water in response to the patients' excessive water intake, resulting in extreme, dilutional hyponatraemia. The patient was treated with two 100 mL boluses of hypertonic 3% saline but deteriorated further and required intubation. She had a complicated ICU course but went on to make a full neurological recovery. This is one of the lowest sodium levels attributed to primary polydipsia or second-generation antipsychotics reported in the literature.