Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is the most common aetiology for hypercalcaemia. The incidence of PHP in pregnant women is reported to be 8/100 000 population/year. It presents a threat to the health of both mother (hyperemesis, nephrolithiasis) and fetus (fetal death, congenital malformations, and neonatal severe hypocalcaemia-induced tetany). However, there is a lack of clear guidance on the management of primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy. In this study, we describe the case of a 26-year-old female patient who presented with severe hypercalcaemia secondary to PHP and underwent successful parathyroid adenectomy under local anaesthesia.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare complication in pregnancy, but the consequences for mother and fetus can be severe.
A perceived risk of general anaesthesia to the fetus in the first trimester has resulted in a general consensus to delay parathyroid surgery to the second trimester when possible – although the increased risk of fetal loss may occur before planned surgery.
If the patient presents with severe or symptomatic hypercalcaemia, minimally invasive surgery under local anaesthetic should be considered regardless of the gestational age of the pregnancy.