A patient treated with intramuscular testosterone replacement therapy for primary hypogonadism developed blurred vision shortly after receiving his testosterone injection. The symptom resolved over subsequent weeks and recurred after his next injection. A diagnosis of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) was confirmed following ophthalmology review. A decision was made to change the patient’s testosterone regime from this 12-weekly intramuscular injection to a daily topical testosterone gel, given the possibility that peak blood levels of testosterone following intramuscular injection were causing his ocular complaint. His CSR did not recur after this change in treatment. CSR secondary to testosterone therapy is a rare finding but has been reported previously in the literature.
Blurred vision in patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) should prompt an ophthalmology review.
The potential for reduced risk of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) with daily transdermal testosterone remains a matter of conjecture.
Mohamed Zahir AlimohamedShree Hindu Mandal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Department of Biochemistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Tanzania Human Genetics Organization, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Pathogenic variants in the nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 gene (NR5A1), which encodes steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), result in 46,XY and 46,XX differences of sex development (DSD). In 46,XY individuals with a pathogenic variant in the NR5A1 gene a variable phenotype ranging from mild to severe is seen, including adrenal failure, testis dysgenesis, androgen synthesis defects, hypospadias and anorchia with microphallus and infertility. We report the clinical, endocrinological and genetic characteristics of a patient with 46,XY DSD with a novel likely pathogenic missense variant in the NR5A1 gene. A retrospective evaluation of the medical history, physical examination, limited endocrinological laboratory analysis and genetic analysis with DSD gene panel testing was performed. A 1.5-month-old individual was referred with ambiguous genitalia. The karyotype was 46,XY. The endocrinological analyses were within normal male reference including a normal response of cortisol within an adrenocorticotropic hormone test. A novel heterozygous missense variant c.206G>C p.(Arg69Pro) in the NR5A1 gene was detected. This variant was present in mosaic form (~20%) in his unaffected father. Because another missense variant at the same position and other missense variants involving the same highly conserved codon have been reported, we consider this NR5A1 variant in this 46,XY DSD patient as likely pathogenic in accordance with the ACMG/AMP 2015 guidelines causing ambiguous genitalia but no adrenal insufficiency. This variant was inherited from the apparently unaffected mosaic father, which might have implications for the recurrence risk in this family.
The importance of performing trio (patient and parents) sequencing is crucial in pointing out the origin of inheritance.
In a 46,XY differences of sex development patient, a normal adrenal function does not rule out an NR5A1 mutation.
With the support of a dedicated overseas institute partnership, we could solve this complex clinical case by molecular diagnosis in a resource-limited setting.
Ryotaro BouchiDepartment of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Center Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Diabetes and Metabolism Information Center, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Mitsuru OhsugiDepartment of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Center Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Diabetes and Metabolism Information Center, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Kohjiro UekiDepartment of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Center Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Department of Molecular Diabetic Medicine, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
A 47-year-old man was diagnosed with a left adrenal incidentaloma at 40 years of age. The tumor had irregular margins and grew from 18 mm to 30 mm in maximum diameter over 7 years. On computed tomography scan, the mass appeared to localize within the tip of the lateral limb of the left adrenal gland, and between the left adrenal gland and the posterior wall of the stomach. The plasma corticotropin and cortisol concentrations and the 24-h urine fractionated metanephrine levels were normal. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed tumor avidity consistent with a hormonally inactive pheochromocytoma. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed; however, no tumor was present in the resected specimen. Abdominal computed tomography postoperatively showed that the tumor remained intact and appeared to connect to the posterior wall of the stomach. A laparotomy was performed and the tumor was removed. The tumor was localized to the intraperitoneal space and isolated from the posterior wall of the stomach. The pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Clinicians need to be aware of the limitations of diagnostic imaging studies in diagnosing non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, which require a pathological analysis for the final diagnosis. Moreover, clinicians need to provide patients with sufficient informed consent when deciding on treatment strategies.
Anatomic structures and tumors that develop in neighboring tissues to the adrenal glands may be confused with primary adrenal tumors.
123I- metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is specific for diagnosing pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas; however, it has been reported that 123I-MIBG may accumulate in neuroendocrine tumors as well as other tumors.
Clinicians should recognize the limitations of imaging studies and the uncertainty of an imaging-based preoperative diagnosis.
Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare neuroendocrine prostatic malignancy. It usually arises after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while de novo cases are even more infrequent, with only six cases described. The patient was a 78-year-old man with no history of ADT who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic approaches included PET/CT, MRI, CT scans, ultrasonography, biopsies, and cytological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Results showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma in the thyroid gland accompanied by cervical lymph node enlargement. Thyroid surgery revealed LCNEC metastasis to the thyroid gland. Additional metastases were identified in both the adrenal glands. Despite appropriate treatment, the patient died of the disease. De novo LCNEC of the prostate is a rare, highly aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is resistant to most therapeutic agents, has a high metastatic potential, and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Further studies are required to characterize this tumor.
De novo LCNECs of the prostate gland can metastasize almost anywhere in the body, including the thyroid and adrenal glands.
LCNECs of the prostate are usually associated with androgen-depriving therapy, but de novo cases are also notable and should be accounted for.
Further studies are required to fully understand and treat LCNECs more effectively.
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, multisystem disease with an undetermined etiology. The presence of noncaseating granulomas in involved organs is a characteristic pathomorphological feature. Sarcoidosis, like a chameleon, can mimic different medical conditions. Although the lungs are most commonly involved, extrapulmonary manifestations can influence any system. The clinical course of the disease may differ. Immediate initiation of glucocorticosteroid therapy is important when critical organs are impaired. A case of a patient with sarcoidosis whose first clinical symptoms were related to diabetes insipidus (DI) was presented. The diagnosis of multiple organ sarcoidosis was delayed because of an adequate response to treatment with vasopressin. The multidisciplinary diagnostic approach validated the involvement of the pituitary gland, lungs, lymph nodes, bones, and subcutaneous tissue. The presented case emphasizes the critical importance of the multifaceted differential diagnosis of patients with DI.
Sarcoidosis usually affects the lung but can also be a multisystemic disease.
The assessment of the extension of sarcoidosis remains complex.
A multidisciplinary approach must identify all-organ involvement and initiate appropriate sarcoidosis treatment.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) can be the first symptom of a systemic granulomatous disorder.
In the differential diagnosis of DI, a comprehensive assessment of rare causes of endocrine disorders, including extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, should be considered.
We describe a case of a 47-year-old patient who presented with severe lactic acidosis, troponinemia, and acute kidney injury after receiving 8 mg of intramuscular dexamethasone for seasonal allergies in the setting of an undiagnosed epinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma. This case was atypical, however, in that the patient exhibited only mildly elevated noninvasive measured blood pressures. Following a period of alpha-adrenergic blockade, the tumor was resected successfully. Steroid administration can precipitate pheochromocytoma crisis that may present unusually as in our patient with mild hypertension but profound lactic acidosis.
Steroids administered via any route can precipitate pheochromocytoma crisis, manifested by excessive catecholamine secretion and associated sequelae from vasoconstriction.
Lack of moderate/severe hypertension on presentation detracts from consideration of pheochromocytoma as a diagnosis.
Lactatemia after steroid administration should prompt work-up for pheochromocytoma, as it can be seen in epinephrine-secreting tumors.
Noninvasive blood pressure measurements may be unreliable during pheochromocytoma crisis due to excessive peripheral vasoconstriction.
A 61-year-old man went to the Emergency Department with left upper abdominal quadrant pain and low-grade fever, as well as a loss of weight (3 kg in 6 weeks). A solid-cystic lesion in the left adrenal lodge was discovered by abdominal ultrasonography. A slight increase in the serum amylase with normal lipase was observed, but there were no signs or symptoms of pancreatitis. A contrast-enhanced CT revealed a tumor that was suspected of adrenocortical cancer. Therefore, he was referred to the endocrine unit. The hormonal evaluation revealed no signs of excessive or inadequate adrenal secretion. To characterize the mass, an MRI was performed; the lesion showed an inhomogeneous fluid collection with peripheral wall contrast-enhancement, as well as a minor 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at PET/CT images. The risk of primary adrenal cancer was minimal after the multidisciplinary discussion. An acute necrotic collection after focal pancreatitis was suspected, according to the characteristics of imaging. Both CT-guided drainage of the necrotic accumulation and laboratory analysis of the aspirated fluid confirmed the diagnosis.
Different types of expansive processes can mimic adrenal incidentalomas.
Necrotic collection after acute focal pancreatitis could be misdiagnosed as an adrenal mass, since its CT characteristics could be equivocal.
MRI has stronger capacities than CT in differentiating complex lesions of the adrenal lodge.
A multidisciplinary approach is fundamental in the management of patients with a newly discovered adrenal incidentaloma and equivocal/suspicious imaging features (low lipid content and size >4 cm).