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Said Darawshi Department of Endocrinology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel
The Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel

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Mahmoud Darawshi Clalit Health Services, Northern District – Arrabah, Israel

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Deeb Daoud Naccache Department of Endocrinology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel
The Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel

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Severe hypocalcaemia in breast cancer with bone metastasis is a rare finding usually associated with an advanced stage of the disease. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of local ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, who presented with muscle tremors and general weakness. Hypocalcaemia was evident, with a positive Chvostek sign and a serum calcium level of 5.9 mg/dL (1.47 mmol/L), phosphorus 5.9 mg/dL (normal range: 2.3–4.7 mg/dL) with normal levels of albumin, magnesium and parathyroid hormone. High oral doses of alpha calcitriol and calcium with i.v. infusion of high calcium doses were instituted, altogether sufficient to maintain only mild hypocalcaemia. A whole-body CT revealed bone lesions along the axial skeleton. A biopsy from a bone lesion revealed a metastasis of breast carcinoma. With this pathological finding, leuprolide (GNRH analogue) and chlorambucil (alkylating agent) were initiated, followed by prompt tapering of infused calcium down to full discontinuation. Serum calcium was kept stable close to the low normal range by high doses of oral alpha calcitriol and calcium. This course raises suspicion that breast metastases to the skeleton caused tumour-induced hypocalcaemia by a unique mechanism. We assume that hypocalcaemia in this case was promoted by a combination of hypoparathyroidism and bone metastasis.

Learning points

  • Severe hypocalcaemia can a presenting symptom for breast cancer relapse.

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Taiba Zornitzki Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Hebrew University Medical School of Jerusalem, Bilu 176100, Rehovot, Israel

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Hadara Rubinfeld Institute of Endocrinology and Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva, 49100, Israel
Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel

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Lyudmila Lysyy Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Hebrew University Medical School of Jerusalem, Bilu 176100, Rehovot, Israel

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Tal Schiller Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Hebrew University Medical School of Jerusalem, Bilu 176100, Rehovot, Israel

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Véronique Raverot Laboratoire d'Hormonologie – CBPE, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 59 bd Pinel69677, Bron Cedex, France

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Ilan Shimon Institute of Endocrinology and Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva, 49100, Israel
Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel

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Hilla Knobler Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Hebrew University Medical School of Jerusalem, Bilu 176100, Rehovot, Israel

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Summary

Acromegaly due to ectopic GHRH secretion from a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is rare and comprises <1% of all acromegaly cases. Herein we present a 57-year-old woman with clinical and biochemical features of acromegaly and a 6 cm pancreatic NET (pNET), secreting GHRH and calcitonin. Following surgical resection of the pancreatic tumor, IGF1, GH and calcitonin normalized, and the clinical features of acromegaly improved. In vitro studies confirmed that the tumor secreted large amounts of both GHRH and calcitonin, and incubation of pNET culture-derived conditioned media stimulated GH release from a cultured human pituitary adenoma. This is a unique case of pNET secreting both GHRH and calcitonin. The ability of the pNET-derived medium to stimulate in vitro GH release from a human pituitary-cell culture, combined with the clinical and hormonal remission following tumor resection, confirmed the ectopic source of acromegaly in this patient.

Learning points

  • Signs, symptoms and initial work-up of acromegaly due to ectopic GHRH secretion are similar to pituitary-dependent acromegaly. However, if no identifiable pituitary lesion is found, somatostatin receptor scan and further imaging (CT, MRI) should be performed.

  • Detection of GHRH in the blood and in the tumor-derived medium supports the diagnosis of ectopic GHRH secretion.

  • Functional bioactivity of pNET-secreted GHRH can be proved in vitro by releasing GH from human pituitary cells.

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Avital Nahmias Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

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Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

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Asher Salmon Department of Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Kiryat Hadassah, Jerusalem, POB 12000, 91120, Israel

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David J Gross Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

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Summary

Approximately 35% of the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are functional, the most common of which is an insulinoma. Rarely can initially nonfunctioning tumor undergo biological transformation to a hormone-secreting tumor with subsequent changes in the clinical picture. We present here three unique patients with long-standing pNETs who developed life-threatening hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia along with tumor progression. In two of the patients, everolimus (Afinitor) was administered in an attempt to control both tumor growth and hypoglycemia. In two cases everolimus therapy resulted in the abolishment of hypoglycemia and induced significant tumor regression; however these beneficial responses were transient. These cases highlight the exceptional ability of pNETs to change biological behavior in parallel with disease progression. Our experience concurs with recently published studies demonstrating the utility of everolimus for the control of both hypoglycemia and tumor progression.

Learning points

  • Nonfunctional pNET can gain new features such as insulin secretion with related morbidity.

  • Gain of function in a previously nonfunctional pNET signifies tumor progression and is usually associated with poor prognosis.

  • Everolimus proved to be a viable treatment for hypoglycemia in insulinoma patients and was also proven highly effective in the patients presented here.

  • As disease progresses, the effect of everolimus on hypoglycemia wanes. We report for the first time the development of hypoglycemia during everolimus treatment.

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