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Jenny S W Yun Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Chris McCormack Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Michelle Goh Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Cherie Chiang Department of Internal Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

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Summary

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a common dermatosis associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. However, AN has been rarely reported in patients with insulinoma, a state of persistent hyperinsulinemia. We present a case of metastatic insulinoma, in whom AN manifested after the first cycle of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with metastatic insulinoma after 5 months of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Within 1 month post PRRT, the patient became euglycemic but developed a pigmented, pruritic rash which was confirmed on biopsy as AN. We discuss the rare manifestation of AN in subjects with insulinoma, the role of insulin in the pathogenesis of AN, malignant AN in non-insulin-secreting malignancies and association with other insulin-resistant endocrinopathies such as acromegaly.

Learning points

  • Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a common dermatosis which is typically asymptomatic and associated with the hyperinsulinemic state.

  • Malignant AN can rapidly spread, cause pruritus and affect mucosa and the oral cavity.

  • AN is extremely rare in patients with insulinoma despite marked hyperinsulinemia.

  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy might have triggered TGF-α secretion in this subject which led to malignant AN.

  • Rapid spread or unusual distribution of pruritic AN warrants further investigation to exclude underlying malignancy.

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Daphne Yau Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Maria Salomon-Estebanez Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Amish Chinoy Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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John Grainger Departments of Paediatric Haematology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Ross J Craigie Departments of Paediatric Surgery, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Raja Padidela Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Mars Skae Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Mark J Dunne Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Philip G Murray Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Indraneel Banerjee Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Summary

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is an important cause of severe hypoglycaemia in infancy. To correct hypoglycaemia, high concentrations of dextrose are often required through a central venous catheter (CVC) with consequent risk of thrombosis. We describe a series of six cases of CHI due to varying aetiologies from our centre requiring CVC for the management of hypoglycaemia, who developed thrombosis in association with CVC. We subsequently analysed the incidence and risk factors for CVC-associated thrombosis, as well as the outcomes of enoxaparin prophylaxis. The six cases occurred over a 3-year period; we identified an additional 27 patients with CHI who required CVC insertion during this period (n = 33 total), and a separate cohort of patients with CHI and CVC who received enoxaparin prophylaxis (n = 7). The incidence of CVC-associated thrombosis was 18% (6/33) over the 3 years, a rate of 4.2 thromboses/1000 CVC days. There was no difference in the frequency of genetic mutations or focal CHI in those that developed thromboses. However, compound heterozygous/homozygous potassium ATP channel mutations correlated with thrombosis (R 2 = 0.40, P = 0.001). No difference was observed in CVC duration, high concentration dextrose or glucagon infused through the CVC. In patients receiving enoxaparin prophylaxis, none developed thrombosis or bleeding complications. The characteristics of these patients did not differ significantly from those with thrombosis not on prophylaxis. We therefore conclude that CVC-associated thrombosis can occur in a significant proportion (18%) of patients with CHI, particularly in severe CHI, for which anticoagulant prophylaxis may be indicated.

Learning points:

  • CVC insertion is one of the most significant risk factors for thrombosis in the paediatric population.

  • Risk factors for CVC-associated thrombosis include increased duration of CVC placement, malpositioning and infusion of blood products.

  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate CVC-associated thrombosis in patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI).

  • The incidence of CVC-associated thrombosis development is significant (18%) in CHI patients and higher compared to other neonates with CVC. CHI severity may be a risk factor for thrombosis development.

  • Although effective prophylaxis for CVC-associated thrombosis in infancy is yet to be established, our preliminary experience suggests the safety and efficacy of enoxoaparin prophylaxis in this population and requires on-going evaluation.

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Sarah Kiff Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK

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Carolyn Babb Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK

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Maria Guemes Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
Genetics and Genomic Medicine Programme, Great Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK

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Antonia Dastamani Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK

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Clare Gilbert Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK

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Sarah E Flanagan Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK

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Sian Ellard Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK

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John Barton Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, UK

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M Dattani Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
Genetics and Genomic Medicine Programme, Great Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK

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Pratik Shah Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
Genetics and Genomic Medicine Programme, Great Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK

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Summary

We report a case of partial diazoxide responsiveness in a child with severe congenital hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (CHI) due to a homozygous ABCC8 mutation. A term baby, with birth weight 3.8 kg, born to consanguineous parents presented on day 1 of life with hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia screen confirmed CHI. Diazoxide was commenced on day 7 due to ongoing elevated glucose requirements (15 mg/kg/min), but despite escalation to a maximum dose (15 mg/kg/day), intravenous (i.v.) glucose requirement remained high (13 mg/kg/min). Genetic testing demonstrated a homozygous ABCC8 splicing mutation (c.2041-1G>C), consistent with a diffuse form of CHI. Diazoxide treatment was therefore stopped and subcutaneous (s.c.) octreotide infusion commenced. Despite this, s.c. glucagon and i.v. glucose were required to prevent hypoglycaemia. A trial of sirolimus and near-total pancreatectomy were considered, however due to the significant morbidity potentially associated with these, a further trial of diazoxide was commenced at 1.5 months of age. At a dose of 10 mg/kg/day of diazoxide and 40 µg/kg/day of octreotide, both i.v. glucose and s.c. glucagon were stopped as normoglycaemia was achieved. CHI due to homozygous ABCC8 mutation poses management difficulties if the somatostatin analogue octreotide is insufficient to prevent hypoglycaemia. Diazoxide unresponsiveness is often thought to be a hallmark of recessively inherited ABCC8 mutations. This patient was initially thought to be non-responsive, but this case highlights that a further trial of diazoxide is warranted, where other available treatments are associated with significant risk of morbidity.

Learning points:

  • Homozygous ABCC8 mutations are commonly thought to cause diazoxide non-responsive hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.

  • This case highlights that partial diazoxide responsiveness in homozygous ABCC8 mutations may be present.

  • Trial of diazoxide treatment in combination with octreotide is warranted prior to considering alternative treatments, such as sirolimus or near-total pancreatectomy, which are associated with more significant side effects.

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Nishant Raizada Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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S H Rahaman Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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D Kandasamy Department of Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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V P Jyotsna Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

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Summary

Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is a rare cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia, which is known to occur in association with the use of sulfhydryl-containing drugs and autoimmune disorders. We describe a patient with hitherto an unreported association of IAS with ankylosing spondylitis. We have also performed and described a simplified method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation of an insulin bound antibody in the serum.

Learning points

  • IAS should be considered in differential diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia.

  • Ankylosing spondylitis can be associated with IAS apart from several other autoimmune diseases.

  • Very high serum insulin levels (100–10 000 μU/ml) are frequently seen in IAS.

  • When faced with very high serum insulin before suspecting insulinoma, it is advisable that PEG precipitation of serum be done to identify antibody bound insulin.

  • A clinical suspicion of IAS can avoid expensive imaging and unnecessary surgery in affected patients.

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Pinaki Dutta Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Anuradha Aggarwal Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Yashpal Gogate Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Uma Nahar Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Viral N Shah Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Mandeep Singla Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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N Khandelwal Radiodiagnosis, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Anil Bhansali Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Summary

We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in five cases of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), diagnosed at a tertiary care institute over a period of 15 years. The clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings of these patients along with diagnostic utility of IGF2:IGF1 ratio are discussed. The mean age of presentation was 52 years, with a male predominance (3:2). Three patients presented with recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycemia and it was detected in other two patients during hospitalization. Two patients had acromegaloid features that regressed following treatment. One patient had hypokalemia. Low levels of insulin, C-peptide, GH, and IGF1 were invariably found in all. The IGF2 level was elevated in only one patient; however, IGF2:IGF1 ratio was more than 10 in four of the five patients. The mean tumor size was 16.4 cm and mean weight was 3.6 kg. Four patients had mesenchymal tumors and one had epithelial tumor. NICTH is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low IGF1 and IGF2:IGF1 ratio more than 10 is suggestive of this entity.

Learning points

  • NICTH should be considered in patients presenting with tumor of mesenchymal origin and hypoglycemia.

  • Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low IGF1 is a strong biochemical evidence of NICTH.

  • IGF2:IGF1 ratio of more than 10 is a complementary investigation in the absence of an assay facility for IGF2.

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