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Open access

Marcio José Concepción Zavaleta, Sofia Pilar Ildefonso Najarro, Esteban Alberto Plasencia Dueñas, María Alejandra Quispe Flores, Diego Martín Moreno Marreros, Luis Alberto Concepción Urteaga, Laura Esther Luna Victorio, and Freddy Valdivia Fernández Dávila


Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the type of thyroid cancer that has the worst prognosis. It usually presents as a rapidly growing cervical mass that generates compressive symptoms. Its association with thyrotoxicosis is rare. A 76-year-old woman, with no contributory history, presented with a 3-month course of fast-growing cervical tumor, associated with tenderness, cough, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed goiter, localized erythema, and a painful and stone tumor dependent on the right thyroid lobe. Due to the malignant findings of the thyroid ultrasound, the patient underwent a thyroid core needle biopsy, which indicated ATC. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone, elevated free thyroxine (fT4), and increased thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies. At the beginning, we considered that the etiology of thyrotoxicosis was secondary to subacute thyroiditis (SAT) after SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the immunochromatography result and chest tomography findings. The result of markedly elevated TPO antibodies left this etiology more remote. Therefore, we suspected Graves’ disease as an etiology; however, thyroid histopathology and ultrasound did not show compatible findings. Therefore, we suspect that the main etiology of thyrotoxicosis in the patient was the destruction of the thyroid follicles caused by a rapid invasion of malignant cells, which is responsible for the consequent release of preformed thyroid hormone. ATC is a rare endocrine neoplasm with high mortality; it may be associated with thyrotoxicosis, whose etiology can be varied; therefore, differential diagnosis is important for proper management.

Learning points

  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the thyroid cancer with the worst prognosis and the highest mortality.

  • The association of anaplastic thyroid cancer with thyrotoxicosis is rare, and a differential diagnosis is necessary to provide adequate treatment.

  • Due to the current pandemic, in patients with thyrotoxicosis, it is important to rule out SARS-CoV-2 as an etiology.

  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer, due to its aggressive behavior and rapid growth, can destroy thyroid follicular cells, generating preformed thyroid hormone release, being responsible for thyrotoxicosis.

Open access

Anthony Ramos-Yataco, Kelly Meza, Reyna Cecilia Farfán-García, Solange Ortega-Rojas, Isaac Salinas-Mamani, Ivonne Silva-Arrieta Ontaneda, and Ricardo Correa


The first case of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in Peru was reported on March 6, 2020. As of September 7, 2020, about 700 000 cases of COVID-19 resulting in 29,976 deaths have been confirmed by the Ministry of Health. Among COVID-19 patients with co-morbidities, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized as a risk factor for severe disease. Patients with T2DM may experience diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic (HHS) if infected with the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Regular blood analysis including arterial blood gas is essential in monitoring the care of patients with T2DM infected with COVID-19. We report five cases of DKA in patients with underlying T2DM that presented with severe COVID-19 infection.

Learning points:

  • COVID-19 may cause acute metabolic dysregulations in patients with T2DM.

  • It is important to monitor basic metabolic panel (BMP) and arterial blood gases (ABGs) in patients with COVID-19 since metabolic complications can develop unexpectedly.

  • Patients with T2DM develop an inflammatory syndrome characterized by severe insulin resistance and B cell dysfunction that can lead to DKA.

Open access

Marcio José Concepción-Zavaleta, Sofía Pilar Ildefonso-Najarro, Esteban Alberto Plasencia-Dueñas, María Alejandra Quispe-Flores, Cristian David Armas-Flórez, and Laura Esther Luna-Victorio


Type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIR) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by antibodies against the insulin receptor. It should be considered in patients with dysglycaemia and severe insulin resistance when other more common causes have been ruled out. We report a case of a 72-year-old male with a 4-year history of type 2 diabetes who presented with hypercatabolism, vitiligo, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperglycaemia resistant to massive doses of insulin (up to 1000 U/day). Detection of anti-insulin receptor antibodies confirmed TBIR. The patient received six pulses of methylprednisolone and daily treatment with cyclophosphamide for 6 months. Response to treatment was evident after the fourth pulse of methylprednisolone, as indicated by weight gain, decreased glycosylated haemoglobin and decreased requirement of exogenous insulin that was later discontinued due to episodes of hypoglycaemia. Remission was eventually achieved and the patient is currently asymptomatic, does not require insulin therapy, has normal glycaemia and is awaiting initiation of maintenance therapy with azathioprine. Thus, TBIR remitted without the use of rituximab. This case highlights the importance of diagnosis and treatment in a timely fashion, as well as the significance of clinical features, available laboratory findings and medication. Large controlled studies are required to standardise a therapeutic protocol, particularly in resource-constrained settings where access to rituximab is limited.

Learning points:

  • Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder that should be considered in patients with dysglycaemia, severe insulin resistance and a concomitant autoimmune disease.

  • Serological confirmation of antibodies against the insulin receptor is not necessary in all cases due to the high associated mortality without timely treatment.

  • Although there is no standardised immunosuppressive treatment, a protocol containing rituximab, cyclophosphamide and steroids has shown a significant reduction in previously reported mortality rates.

  • The present case, reports successful remission in an atypical patient using cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone, which is an effective therapy in countries in which rituximab is not covered by health insurance.

  • When there is improvement in the hypercatabolic phase, the insulin dose should be reduced and/or discontinued to prevent hypoglycaemia; a mild postprandial hyperglycaemic state should be acceptable.

Open access

Sofia Pilar Ildefonso-Najarro, Esteban Alberto Plasencia-Dueñas, Cesar Joel Benites-Moya, Jose Carrion-Rojas, and Marcio Jose Concepción-Zavaleta


Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder that causes anovulatory infertility secondary to hypercortisolism; therefore, pregnancy rarely occurs during its course. We present the case of a 24-year-old, 16-week pregnant female with a 10-month history of unintentional weight gain, dorsal gibbus, nonpruritic comedones, hirsutism and hair loss. Initial biochemical, hormonal and ultrasound investigations revealed hypokalemia, increased nocturnal cortisolemia and a right adrenal mass. The patient had persistent high blood pressure, hyperglycemia and hypercortisolemia. She was initially treated with antihypertensive medications and insulin therapy. Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome was confirmed by an abdominal MRI that demonstrated a right adrenal adenoma. The patient underwent right laparoscopic adrenalectomy and anatomopathological examination revealed an adrenal adenoma with areas of oncocytic changes. Finally, antihypertensive medication was progressively reduced and glycemic control and hypokalemia reversal were achieved. Long-term therapy consisted of low-dose daily prednisone. During follow-up, despite favorable outcomes regarding the patient’s Cushing’s syndrome, stillbirth was confirmed at 28 weeks of pregnancy. We discuss the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s syndrome to prevent severe maternal and fetal complications.

Learning points:

  • Pregnancy can occur, though rarely, during the course of Cushing’s syndrome.

  • Pregnancy is a transient physiological state of hypercortisolism and it must be differentiated from Cushing’s syndrome based on clinical manifestations and laboratory tests.

  • The diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome during pregnancy may be challenging, particularly in the second and third trimesters because of the changes in the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  • Pregnancy during the course of Cushing’s syndrome is associated with severe maternal and fetal complications; therefore, its early diagnosis and treatment is critical.