Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare hereditary syndrome with impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormones (TH) and reduced intracellular action of triiodothyronine (T3) caused by genetic variants of TH receptor beta (TRB) or alpha (TRA). RTH type beta (RTHβ) due to dominant negative variants in the TRB gene usually occurs with persistent elevation of circulating free TH, non-suppressed serum TSH levels responding to a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test, an absence of typical symptoms of hyperthyroidism and goiter. Here, we present a rare variant in the TRB gene reported for the first time in an Italian patient with generalized RTHβ syndrome. The patient showed elevated TH, with non-suppressed TSH levels and underwent thyroid surgery two different times for multinodular goiter. The genetic test showed a heterozygous mutation in exon 9 of the TRB gene resulting in the replacement of threonine (ACG) with methionine (ATG) at codon 310 (p.M310T). RTHβ syndrome should be considered in patients with elevated TH, non-suppressed TSH levels and goiter.
- Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary syndrome with impaired tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones (TH).
- Diagnosis of RTH is usually based on the clinical finding of discrepant thyroid function tests and confirmed by a genetic test.
- RTH is a rare condition that must be considered for the management of patients with goiter, elevation of TH and non-suppressed serum TSH levels in order to avoid unnecessary treatments.