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Peter Taylor, Sasan Dehbozorgi, Arshiya Tabasum, Anna Scholz, Harsh Bhatt, Philippa Stewart, Pranav Kumar, Mohd S Draman, Alastair Watt, Aled Rees, Caroline Hayhurst, and Stephen Davies

Summary

Hyponatraemia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disturbance in neurological high dependency and intensive care units. Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is the most elusive and challenging of the causes of hyponatraemia, and it is vital to distinguish it from the more familiar syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Managing CSW requires correction of the intravascular volume depletion and hyponatraemia, as well as mitigation of on-going substantial sodium losses. Herein we describe a challenging case of CSW requiring large doses of hypertonic saline and the subsequent substantial benefit with the addition of fludrocortisone.

Learning points:

  • The diagnosis of CSW requires a high index of suspicion. Distinguishing it from SIADH is essential to enable prompt treatment in order to prevent severe hyponatraemia.
  • The hallmarks of substantial CSW are hyponatraemia, reduced volume status and inappropriately high renal sodium loss.
  • Substantial volumes of hypertonic saline may be required for a prolonged period of time to correct volume and sodium deficits.
  • Fludrocortisone has a role in the management of CSW. It likely reduces the doses of hypertonic saline required and can maintain serum sodium levels of hypertonic saline.
Open access

Roberto Attanasio, Liana Cortesi, Daniela Gianola, Claudia Vettori, Fulvio Sileo, and Roberto Trevisan

Summary

Cushing’s syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although surgery is the first-line treatment, drugs can still play a role as an ancillary treatment to be employed while waiting for surgery, after unsuccessful operation or in patients unsuitable for surgery. We were asked to evaluate a 32-year-old male waiting for cardiac transplantation. Idiopathic hypokinetic cardiomyopathy had been diagnosed since 6 years. He was on treatment with multiple drugs, had a pacemaker, an implantable cardioverter and an external device for the support of systolic function. Physical examination showed severely impaired general status, signs of hypercortisolism and multiple vertebral compression fractures. We administered teriparatide, and the few evaluable parameters supported the diagnosis of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism: serum cortisol was 24.2 µg/dL in the morning and 20.3 µg/dL after overnight 1 mg dexamethasone, urinary free cortisol (UFC) was 258 µg/24 h and ACTH 125 pg/mL. Pituitary CT was negative. Pasireotide 300 µg bid was administered and uptitrated to 600 µg bid. Treatment was well tolerated, achieving dramatic improvement of clinical picture with progressive normalization of serum cortisol and ACTH levels as well as UFC. After 4 months, the patient underwent successful heart transplantation. Many complications ensued and were overcome. Pituitary MRI was negative. On pasireotide 300 µg bid and prednisone 2.5 mg/day (as part of immunosuppressive therapy), morning serum cortisol and ACTH were 15.6 µg/dL and 54 pg/mL respectively, UFC was 37 µg/24 h, fasting glucose: 107 mg/dL and HbA1c: 6.5%. In conclusion, primary treatment with pasireotide achieved remission of hypercortisolism, thus allowing the patient to undergo heart transplantation.

Learning points:

  • Untreated Cushing’s syndrome is associated with ominous prognosis.
  • First-line treatment is surgery (at pituitary or adrenal, according to disease localization).
  • A few drugs are available to treat hypercortisolism.
  • Pasireotide is a multi-ligand somatostatin analog approved for treatment of hypercortisolism.
  • Primary treatment with pasireotide was effective in a patient with severe Cushing’s syndrome, allowing him to undergo heart transplantation.