Browse

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • Osteomalacia x
Clear All
Open access

Andrew R Tang, Laura E Hinz, Aneal Khan and Gregory A Kline

Summary

Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene that encodes the renal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2c (NaPi-IIc). It may present as intermittent mild hypercalcemia which may attract initial diagnostic attention but appreciation of concomitant hypophosphatemia is critical for consideration of the necessary diagnostic approach. A 21-year-old woman was assessed by adult endocrinology for low bone mass. She initially presented age two with short stature, nephrocalcinosis and mild intermittent hypercalcemia with hypercalciuria. She had no evidence of medullary sponge kidney or Fanconi syndrome and no bone deformities, pain or fractures. She had recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis. In childhood, she was treated with hydrochlorothiazide to reduce urinary calcium. Upon review of prior investigations, she had persistent hypophosphatemia with phosphaturia, low PTH and a high-normal calcitriol. A diagnosis of HHRH was suspected and genetic testing confirmed a homozygous c.1483G>A (p.G495R) missense mutation of the SLC34A3 gene. She was started on oral phosphate replacement which normalized her serum phosphate, serum calcium and urine calcium levels over the subsequent 5 years. HHRH is an autosomal recessive condition that causes decreased renal reabsorption of phosphate, leading to hyperphosphaturia, hypophosphatemia and PTH-independent hypercalcemia due to the physiologic increase in calcitriol which also promotes hypercalciuria. Classically, patients present in childhood with bone pain, vitamin D-independent rickets and growth delay. This case of a SLC34A3 mutation illustrates the importance of investigating chronic hypophosphatemia even in the presence of other more common electrolyte abnormalities.

Learning points:

  • Hypophosphatemia is an important diagnostic clue that should not be ignored, even in the face of more common electrolyte disorders.
  • HHRH is a cause of PTH-independent hypophosphatemia that may also show hypercalcemia.
  • HHRH is a cause of hypophosphatemic nephrocalcinosis that should not be treated with calcitriol, unlike other congenital phosphate wasting syndromes.
  • Some congenital phosphate wasting disorders may not present until adolescence or early adulthood.
Open access

Zaina Adnan, David Nikomarov, Michal Weiler-Sagie and Noga Roguin Maor

Summary

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) represents a rare cause of osteomalacia. The clinical signs and symptoms are vague and these lead to diagnosis delay. In the presence of hypophosphatemia and relatively high urine phosphate excretion, this entity should be taken into consideration in the deferential diagnosis of osteomalacia. In the present article, we report 81-year-old man presented to our clinic for evaluation due to osteopenia. His laboratory results disclosed hypophosphatemia, relatively increased urine phosphate excretion and increased level of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). A 68Gallium DOTATATE PET/CT revealed pathological uptake in the upper aspect of the left shoulder adjacent to the coracoid process. For suspected PMT a wide resection of the tumor was performed and pathological findings were consistent for PMT. Laboratory tests were normalized postoperatively. Reviewing the literature, we had identified 33 reported cases of PMTs among elderly patients age ≥70 years. Unlike previously reported data, where tumors predominantly localized in the lower extremities and pelvis, our search disclosed a high rate of tumor localization (10 cases – 33.3%) in the head with equal number of tumors (14 cases – 42.4%) localized in the head and upper extremity as well as in pelvis and lower extremity. The present case describes unique tumor localization in an elderly patient and our literature search demonstrated for the first time a high rate of tumor localization in the head among this group of patients.

Learning points:

  • PMTs represent a rare entity that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients presented with persistent hypophosphatemia.
  • Unlike previously reported data, head and neck tumor localization is frequent among elderly patients.
  • 68Gallium-conjugated somatostatin peptide analogs, such as 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and specificity for tumor localization in patients with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs).
  • Wide tumor resection using intraoperative ultrasound is of major importance in order to ensure long-term cure.
Open access

Hans-Christof Schober, Christian Kneitz, Franziska Fieber, Kathrin Hesse and Henry Schroeder

Summary

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is caused by the hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). It is mainly produced in the tissue of mesenchymal tumors. Patients with TIO frequently suffer from a chronic decompensated pain syndrome and/or muscle weakness with postural deformity. Despite the severity of the disease, the diagnosis is frequently established late. In some cases, it takes several years to establish the condition. This case report concerning a 68-year old woman demonstrates the selective blood sampling for FGF-23 as path-breaking diagnostics to confirm the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor.

Learning points:

  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare condition compared to other paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • It causes complex symptoms such as progressive reduction of physical capacity, exhaustion, fatigue, a decompensated pain syndrome of the musculoskeletal system and fractures of several bones.
  • Elevated serum levels of FGF-23 implicate massive phosphate elimination and resulting hypophosphatemia.
  • The diagnosis is often established over a period of several years because the localization of small FGF-23-producing tumors is complicated.
  • It is the combination of MRI and selective blood sampling for FGF-23 which permits reliable identification of tumors causing TIO and leads to accurate localization.
  • In a patient with generalized pain and reduced physical capacity, osteological parameters such as phosphate, 25-OH vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3, as well as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels in serum should be determined. Hypophosphatemia should always lead to further diagnostic investigations aiming at the detection of an FGF-23-producing tumor.
Open access

Shintaro Kawai, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Yasushi Furukawa, Reika Yamamoto, Shinsuke Uraki, Ken Takeshima, Kenji Warigaya, Yuji Nakamoto and Takashi Akamizu

Summary

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia due to excessive actions of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) produced by the tumors. Although the best way of curing TIO is complete resection, it is usually difficult to detect the culprit tumors by general radiological modalities owing to the size and location of the tumors. We report a case of TIO in which the identification of the tumor by conventional imaging studies was difficult. Nonetheless, a diagnosis was made possible by effective use of multiple modalities. We initially suspected that the tumor existed in the right dorsal aspect of the scapula by 68Ga-DOTATOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT) and supported the result by systemic venous sampling (SVS). The tumor could also be visualized by 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although it was not detected by 1.5T-MRI, and eventually be resected completely. In cases of TIO, a stepwise approach of 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT, SVS and 3T-MRI can be effective for confirmation of diagnosis.

Learning points:

  • TIO shows impaired bone metabolism due to excessive actions of FGF23 produced by the tumor. The causative tumors are seldom detected by physical examinations and conventional radiological modalities.
  • In TIO cases, in which the localization of the culprit tumors is difficult, 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT should be performed as a screening of localization and thereafter SVS should be conducted to support the result of the somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging leading to increased diagnosability.
  • When the culprit tumors cannot be visualized by conventional imaging studies, using high-field MRI at 3T and comparing it to the opposite side are useful after the tumor site was determined.
Open access

Maria P Yavropoulou, Nikolina Gerothanasi, Athanasios Frydas, Evangelia Triantafyllou, Chris Poulios, Prodromos Hytiroglou, Panagiotis Apostolou, Ioannis Papasotiriou, Symeon Tournis, Isaak Kesisoglou and John G Yovos

Summary

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and local recurrence occurs in <5% of cases. We investigated a 49-year-old man with a recurrent mesenchymal phosphaturic tumor showing no signs of malignancy. The patient suffered from chronic muscle weakness, myalgia and cramps. His medical record included the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia, for which he was submitted to tumor resection in the left leg three times before. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and an elevated serum FGF23 level. A radical surgical approach (amputation) was advised, however, complete biochemical and clinical remission was not reached. Molecular analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated overexpression of growth factor receptors implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastatic potential (platelet derived growth factor type A (PDGFRA), PDGFRB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) together with increased expression of FGF23, x-linked-phosphate-regulating endopeptidase and KLOTHO. TIO is usually associated with benign phosphauturic tumors and, when identified, resection of the tumor leads to complete remission in the majority of cases. The underlying pathophysiology of recurrences in these tumors is not known. This is the first report showing increased expression of growth factor receptors in a locally aggressive but histopathologically benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor.

Learning points

  • TIO is usually associated with benign soft tissue or bone neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.
  • These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and even in the rare malignant cases local recurrence occurs in <5%.
  • Successful identification and removal of the tumor leads to full recovery in the majority of cases.