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Open access

Chloe Broughton, Jane Mears, Adam Williams and Kathryn Lonnen

Summary

Pituitary adenomas can be classified as functioning or non-functioning adenomas. Approximately 64% of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas are found to be gonadotroph adenomas on immunohistochemistry. There are reported cases of gonadotroph adenomas causing clinical symptoms, but this is unusual. We present the case of a 36-year-old female with abdominal pain. Multiple large ovarian cysts were identified on ultrasound requiring bilateral cystectomy. Despite this, the cysts recurred resulting in further abdominal pain, ovarian torsion and right oophorectomy and salpingectomy. On her 3rd admission with abdominal pain, she was found to have a rectus sheath mass which was resected and histologically confirmed to be fibromatosis. Endocrine investigations revealed elevated oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at the upper limit of the normal range and a suppressed luteinising hormone (LH). Prolactin was mildly elevated. A diagnosis of an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was considered and a pituitary MRI revealed a 1.5 cm macroadenoma. She underwent transphenoidal surgery which led to resolution of her symptoms and normalisation of her biochemistry. Subsequent pelvic ultrasound showed normal ovarian follicular development. Clinically functioning gonadotroph adenomas are rare, but should be considered in women presenting with menstrual irregularities, large or recurrent ovarian cysts, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and fibromatosis. Transphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment with the aim of achieving complete remission.

Learning points:

  • Pituitary gonadotroph adenomas are usually clinically non-functioning, but in rare cases can cause clinical symptoms.

  • A diagnosis of a functioning gonadotroph adenoma should be considered in women presenting with un-explained ovarian hyperstimulation and/or fibromatosis.

  • In women with functioning gonadotroph adenomas, the main biochemical finding is elevated oestradiol levels. Serum FSH levels can be normal or mildly elevated. Serum LH levels are usually suppressed.

  • Transphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment for patients with functioning gonadotroph adenomas, with the aim of achieving complete remission.

Open access

Guadalupe Vargas, Lourdes-Josefina Balcazar-Hernandez, Virgilio Melgar, Roser-Montserrat Magriña-Mercado, Baldomero Gonzalez, Javier Baquera and Moisés Mercado

A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH.

Learning points:

  • Although functioning gonadotrophinomas are infrequent, they should be included in the differential diagnosis of isosexual central precocious puberty.

  • Some functioning gonadotrophinomas are mixed adenomas, secreting other biologically active hormones besides FSH, such as TSH.

  • Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these tumors by transsphenoidal surgery is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions that may irreversibly compromise gonadal function.

Open access

Runa Acharya and Udaya M Kabadi

Summary

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. The current case is a unique and rare presentation of DKA as the initial manifestation of Cushing’s disease secondary to ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Appropriate management as elaborated in the article led to total remission of diabetes as well as the Cushing’s disease.

Learning points:

  • DKA is a serious and potentially life-threatening metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus.

  • Some well-known precipitants of DKA include new-onset T1DM, insulin withdrawal and acute illness.

  • In a patient presenting with DKA, the presence of a mixed acid–base disorder warrants further evaluation for precipitants of DKA.

  • We present a rare case of DKA as an initial manifestation of Cushing’s disease secondary to ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma.

Open access

Jerena Manoharan, Caroline L Lopez, Karl Hackmann, Max B Albers, Anika Pehl, Peter H Kann, Emily P Slater, Evelin Schröck and Detlef K Bartsch

Summary

We report about a young female who developed an unusual and an aggressive phenotype of the MEN1 syndrome characterized by the development of a pHPT, malignant non-functioning pancreatic and duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasias, a pituitary adenoma, a non-functioning adrenal adenoma and also a malignant jejunal NET at the age of 37 years. Initial Sanger sequencing could not detect a germline mutation of the MEN1 gene, but next generation sequencing and MPLA revealed a deletion of the MEN1 gene ranging between 7.6 and 25.9 kb. Small intestine neuroendocrine neoplasias (SI-NENs) are currently not considered to be a part of the phenotype of the MEN1-syndrome. In our patient the SI-NENs were detected during follow-up imaging on Ga68-Dotatoc PET/CT and could be completely resected. Although SI-NENs are extremely rare, these tumors should also be considered in MEN1 patients. Whether an aggressive phenotype or the occurrence of SI-NENs in MEN1 are more likely associated with large deletions of the gene warrants further investigation.

Learning points

  • Our patient presents an extraordinary course of disease.

  • Although SI-NENs are extremely rare, these tumors should also be considered in MEN1 patients, besides the typical MEN1 associated tumors.

  • This case reports indicate that in some cases conventional mutation analysis of MEN1 patients should be supplemented by the search for larger gene deletions with modern techniques, if no germline mutation could be identified by Sanger sequencing.

Open access

Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Veejay Bagga, Stephen B Wharton, Daniel J Connolly, Saurabh Sinha and Paul J Dimitri

Summary

Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis (XGH) is a very rare form of pituitary hypophysitis that may present both clinically and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion. It may either be primary with an autoimmune aetiology and can occur in isolation or as a part of autoimmune systemic disease or secondary as a reactive degenerative response to an epithelial lesion (e.g. craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke's cleft cyst, germinoma and pituitary adenomas) or as a part of a multiorgan systemic involvement such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or granulomatosis. It may also present with a variation of symptoms in children and adults. Our case series compares the paediatric and adult presentations of XGH and the differential diagnoses considered in one child and two adult patients, highlighting the wide spectrum of this condition. Endocrine investigations suggested panhypopituitarism in all three patients and imaging revealed a suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm suggestive of CP or Rathke's cleft cyst in one patient and non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, histological analysis revealed necrotic material with a xanthogranulomatous reaction confirming XGH in two patients and a necrobiotic granulomatous chronic inflammatory infiltrate with neutrophils in one patient, which is not typical of current descriptions of this disorder. This case series describes the wide spectrum of XGH disease that is yet to be defined. Mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences may indicate XGH and diagnosis is confirmed by histology. Histological variation may indicate an underlying systemic process.

Learning points

  • XGH is a rare form of pituitary hypophysitis with a wide clinical and histological spectrum and can mimic a neoplastic lesion.

  • XGH primarily presents with growth arrest in children and pubertal arrest in adolescents. In adults, the presentation may vary.

  • A combination of hypopituitarism and mixed signal intensity lesion on MRI is suggestive of XGH and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

  • Radical surgery is the treatment of choice and carries an excellent prognosis with no recurrence.