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Open access

Alex González Bóssolo, Michelle Mangual Garcia, Paula Jeffs González, Miosotis Garcia, Guillermo Villarmarzo and Jose Hernán Martinez

Summary

Classical papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) known to have excellent prognosis. It has a mortality of 0.3%, even in the presence of distance metastasis. The latest American Thyroid Association guidelines state that although lobectomy is acceptable, active surveillance can be considered in the appropriate setting. We present the case of a 37-year-old female with a history of PTMC who underwent surgical management consisting of a total thyroidectomy. Although she has remained disease-free, her quality of life has been greatly affected by the sequelae of this procedure. This case serves as an excellent example of how first-line surgical treatment may result more harmful than the disease itself.

Learning points:

  • Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has an excellent prognosis with a mortality of less than 1% even with the presence of distant metastases.

  • Active surveillance is a reasonable management approach for appropriately selected patients.

  • Patients should be thoroughly oriented about the risks and benefits of active surveillance vs immediate surgical treatment. This discussion should include the sequelae of surgery and potential impact on quality of life, especially in the younger population.

  • More studies are needed for stratification of PTMC behavior to determine if conservative management is adequate for all patients with this specific disease variant.

Open access

Kazuyuki Oishi, Daisuke Takabatake and Yuichi Shibuya

Summary

We experienced a case of an 82-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of dysphagia and dyspnea. Cervical contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed diffuse thyroid neoplasms causing significant tracheal stenosis with tumors, particularly of the superior mediastinum, which were associated with an embolism of the brachiocephalic vein and suspected invasion to the bilateral common carotid arteries. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration; thus, emergency tracheostomy and gastrostomy were performed. We made a definitive diagnosis of ATC (T4bN0M0 Stage IVB) and initiated continuous lenvatinib administration at 24 mg/day. Although several adverse events occurred, the tumor size reduced remarkably over a short period. However, the patient died from rupture of the common carotid artery 30 days after treatment initiation. Here, we report our experience with lenvatinib therapy for ATC and include a literature review.

Learning points:

  • Lenvatinib is extremely effective for ATC.

  • Lenvatinib has a much greater cytoreductive effect than traditional therapies, but it needs dose reduction or withdrawal because of treatment-related side effects.

  • Lenvatinib may cause treatment-related carotid blowout syndrome, resulting in death for patients with invasion to the carotid artery.