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Khaled Aljenaee, Sulaiman Ali, Seong Keat Cheah, Owen MacEneaney, Niall Mulligan, Neil Hickey, Tommy Kyaw Tun, Seamus Sreenan and John H McDermott

Markedly elevated androgen levels can lead to clinical virilization in females. Clinical features of virilization in a female patient, in association with biochemical hyperandrogenism, should prompt a search for an androgen-producing tumor, especially of ovarian or adrenal origin. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old woman of Pakistani origin who presented with the incidental finding of male pattern baldness and hirsutism. Her serum testosterone level was markedly elevated at 21 nmol/L (normal range: 0.4–1.7 nmol/L), while her DHEAS level was normal, indicating a likely ovarian source of her elevated testosterone. Subsequently, a CT abdomen-pelvis was performed, which revealed a bulky right ovary, confirmed on MRI of the pelvis as an enlarged right ovary, measuring 2.9 × 2.2 cm transaxially. A laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of a Leydig cell tumor, a rare tumor accounting for 0.1% of ovarian tumors. Surgical resection led to normalization of testosterone levels.

Learning points:

  • Hirsutism in postmenopausal women should trigger suspicion of androgen-secreting tumor

  • Extremely elevated testosterone level plus normal DHEAS level point toward ovarian source

  • Leydig cell tumor is extremely rare cause of hyperandrogenicity

Open access

Renata Lange, Caoê Von Linsingen, Fernanda Mata, Aline Barbosa Moraes, Mariana Arruda and Leonardo Vieira Neto

Summary

Ring chromosomes (RCs) are uncommon cytogenetic findings, and RC11 has only been described in 19 cases in the literature. Endocrine abnormalities associated with RC11 were reported for two of these cases. The clinical features of RC11 can result from an alteration in the structure of the genetic material, ring instability, mosaicism, and various extents of genetic material loss. We herein describe a case of RC11 with clinical features of 11q-syndrome and endocrine abnormalities that have not yet been reported. A 20-year-old female patient had facial dysmorphism, short stature, psychomotor developmental delays, a ventricular septal defect, and thrombocytopenia. Karyotyping demonstrated RC11 (46,XX,r(11)(p15q25)). This patient presented with clinical features that may be related to Jacobsen syndrome, which is caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. Regarding endocrine abnormalities, our patient presented with precocious puberty followed by severe hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, clitoromegaly, and amenorrhea, which were associated with overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hyperinsulinemia; therefore, this case meets the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine abnormalities are rare in patients with RC11, and the association of RC11 with precocious puberty, severe clinical hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and T2DM has not been reported previously. We speculate that gene(s) located on chromosome 11 might be involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Despite the rarity of RCs, studies to correlate the genes located on the chromosomes with the phenotypes observed could lead to major advances in the understanding and treatment of more prevalent diseases.

Learning points

  • We hypothesize that the endocrine features of precocious puberty, severe clinical hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and T2DM might be associated with 11q-syndrome.

  • A karyotype study should be performed in patients with short stature and facial dysmorphism.

  • Early diagnosis and adequate management of these endocrine abnormalities are essential to improve the quality of life of the patient and to prevent other chronic diseases, such as diabetes and its complications.

Open access

Jayshree Swain, Shruti Sharma, Ved Prakash, N K Agrawal and S K Singh

Summary

Ovarian steroid cell tumors are very rare functioning sex-cord stromal tumors. They comprise <0.1% of all ovarian tumors. Previously designated as lipoid cell tumors, one-third of these tumors are considered malignant with the mean age of presentation at around 40 years. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with 2-year history of hirsutism, virilization, and amenorrhea. She was diagnosed with left ovarian tumor, for which she underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathology revealed not otherwise specified subtype of steroid cell tumors. The patient resumed menses 2 months after the features of masculinization regressed. Within 1 year of surgery, the patient successfully conceived a full-term baby without any complications. In a young female, the neoplastic etiology of a rapid virilization or menses changing should always be kept in mind. Though commonly observed in adult females, steroid cell tumors have very good surgical outcomes if age at presentation is less and tumor is unilateral, and there are no evidences of bilateral malignancy. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is not required.

Learning points

  • In a case of severe rapid hirsutism and virilization with serum testosterone level more than 200 ng/dl or more than threefold of the normal range, neoplastic conditions should always be suspected.

  • Steroid cell tumor in young women without evidence of malignancy on histopathology has excellent surgical outcomes.

  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the surgery of choice.

  • As the frequency of bilateralism is only 6%, prophylactic unaffected side oophorectomy need not be done.