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Open access

Shinichiro Teramoto, Yuichi Tange, Hisato Ishii, Hiromasa Goto, Ikuko Ogino and Hajime Arai

Summary

A 67-year-old woman with a past history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with worsening glycemic control. She had some acromegaly symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a pituitary tumor. Endocrinological examination found the resting growth hormone (GH) level within the normal range, but elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 level. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test showed inadequate suppression of nadir GH levels. Acromegaly due to GH-secreting pituitary tumor was diagnosed. The patient underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery resulting in gross total removal of the tumor and recovered well postoperatively. Histological examination of the tumor showed coexistence of relatively large gangliocytoma cells and pituitary adenoma cells, suggesting mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma. In addition, colocalization of GH and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in pituitary adenoma cells was revealed, so the adenomatous components were more likely to produce GHRH in our mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma case. Mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma is very rare, and the present unique case demonstrated only the adenomatous components associated with GHRH production.

Learning points:

  • Sellar gangliocytoma coexisting with pituitary adenoma is recognized as a mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma and is very rare.
  • A proposed developmental mechanism of growth hormone (GH)-secreting mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma involves GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) produced by the gangliocytic components promoting the growth of tumor including GH-secreting adenomatous components.
  • Since our present case indicated that the adenomatous components of mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma could secrete both GH and GHRH simultaneously, progression of GH-secreting mixed gangliocytoma and pituitary adenoma may involve exposure to spontaneously produced GHRH due to the adenomatous components.
Open access

Melissa H Lee, Penelope McKelvie, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Yi Yuen Wang and Carmela Caputo

Summary

Most cases of acromegaly are due to growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas arising from somatotroph cells. Mixed pituitary adenoma and gangliocytoma tumours are rare and typically associated with hormonal hypersecretion, most commonly GH excess. Differentiating these mixed tumours from conventional pituitary adenomas can be difficult pre-operatively, and careful histological analysis after surgical resection is key to differentiating the two entities. There is little literature addressing the possible mechanisms for the development of mixed pituitary adenoma–gangliocytomas; however, several hypotheses have been proposed. It still remains unclear if these mixed tumours differ from a clinical perspective to pituitary adenomas; however, the additional neural component of the gangliocytoma does not appear to modify the aggressiveness or risk of recurrence after surgical resection. We report a unique case of acromegaly secondary to a mixed GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, co-existing with an intrasellar gangliocytoma.

Learning points:

  • Acromegaly due to a mixed GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and intrasellar gangliocytoma is rare.
  • These mixed tumours cannot be distinguished easily from ordinary pituitary adenomas on the basis of clinical, endocrine or neuroradiologic findings, and histological analysis is required for a definitive diagnosis.
  • Surgical resection is usually sufficient to provide cure, without the need for adjuvant therapy.
  • These mixed tumours appear to have a good prognosis although the natural history is not well defined.
  • The pathogenesis of these mixed tumours remains debatable, and ongoing research is required.