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Open access

Yael Lefkovits and Amanda Adler

Summary

Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD) is a chronic granulomatous dermatitis generally involving the anterior aspect of the shin, that arises in 0.3–1.2% of patients with diabetes mellitus (1). The lesions are often yellow or brown with telangiectatic plaque, a central area of atrophy and raised violaceous borders (2). Similar to other conditions with a high risk of scarring including burns, stasis ulcers and lupus vulgaris, NLD provides a favourable environment for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation (3). A number of cases of SCC from NLD have been recorded (3, 4, 5); however, our search of the literature failed to identify any cases of either metastatic or fatal SCC which developed within an area of NLD. This article describes a patient with established type 1 diabetes mellitus who died from SCC which developed from an area of NLD present for over 10 years. Currently, there are a paucity of recommendations in the medical literature for screening people with NLD for the early diagnosis of SCC. We believe that clinicians should regard non-healing ulcers in the setting of NLD with a high index of clinical suspicion for SCC, and an early biopsy of such lesions should be recommended.

Learning points:

  • Non-healing, recalcitrant ulcers arising from necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, which fail to heal by conservative measures, should be regarded with a high index of clinical suspicion for malignancy.
  • If squamous cell carcinoma is suspected, a biopsy should be performed as soon as possible to prevent metastatic spread, amputation or even death.
  • Our literature search failed to reveal specific recommendations for screening and follow-up of non-healing recalcitrant ulcers in the setting of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum.
  • Further research is required in this field.
Open access

Shunsuke Funazaki, Hodaka Yamada, Kazuo Hara and San-e Ishikawa

Summary

Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) has been known to be associated with pregnancy. We herein report the case of a 33-year-old woman who underwent vaginal delivery without massive bleeding at 40 weeks of gestation. Because of the presence of headache and terrible fatigue after childbirth, she visited our hospital. Severe hyponatremia (Na, 118 mEq/L) and visual field abnormality was noted upon examination. MRI revealed pituitary enlargement with a swollen pituitary stalk, albeit at low signal intensity. Basal pituitary hormone levels were all reduced and remained low after exogenous administration of hypothalamic-releasing hormones. She was diagnosed with LyH and was started on prednisolone 60 mg/day. A month later, her pituitary function had gradually improved together with a decrease in pituitary enlargement and recovery of her visual field. The dose of prednisolone was gradually reduced and finally withdrawn 27 months later. After prednisolone withdrawal, her pituitary function remained normal despite the absence of any hormonal replacement. A year later, she became pregnant without medication and delivered a second baby without LyH recurrence. Thereafter, her pituitary function has been normal for more than 5 years. Two valuable observations can be highlighted from the case. First, the patient completely recovered from LyH through prompt prednisolone therapy during its initial phase and had almost normal pituitary function. Second, after recovery from LyH, she was able to undergo spontaneous pregnancy and deliver a baby. We believe that reporting incidences of spontaneous pregnancy after complete normalization of pituitary function in patients with LyH is of great significance.

Learning points:

  • Females are more affected by LyH than males given its strong association with pregnancy.
  • LyH possesses characteristic findings on pituitary MRI.
  • Glucocorticoid therapy for LyH has been recommended as an effective treatment.
  • A history of previous pregnancies does not increase the risk of developing AH in subsequent pregnancies.
  • Early induction of high-dose prednisolone was therapeutically effective in treating LyH.
Open access

Jennifer Hague, Ruth Casey, Jonathan Bruty, Tom Legerton, Stephen Abbs, Susan Oddy, Andrew S Powlson, Mohamed Majeed, Mark Gurnell, Soo-Mi Park and Helen Simpson

Summary

Activating mutations in AVPR2 are associated with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD). NSIAD causes hyponatremia, decreased serum osmolality and clinical symptoms, which may present from birth or in infancy and include hypotonia, irritability, vomiting and/or seizures. Symptoms in later life are often less specific and include malaise, dizziness, confusion, tiredness and headache. NSIAD is a rare X-linked condition, which is associated with a variable phenotype in males, of whom some present in infancy but others do not become symptomatic until adulthood, or occasionally, never. Female carriers may present with episodes of hyponatremia, usually found incidentally. Literature in this field is limited; namely, two clinical reports describing a female proband, both diagnosed in infancy. We describe, for the first time, the case of an adult female proband with NSIAD, who had longstanding associated symptoms of tiredness, headache, temporary memory loss and mood changes as well as hyponatremia and decreased serum osmolality. A water load test demonstrated an inability to dilute urine and gene sequencing confirmed a recurrent activating mutation in AVPR2. The variant was inherited from the proband’s mother who had had longstanding episodes of transient asymptomatic hyponatremia. This is the third report of a female proband with NSIAD and is the first female reported who sought medical treatment for chronic symptoms from adulthood. This case acts as a reminder of the importance of considering NSIAD as a diagnosis in females of all ages with unexplained hyponatremia.

Learning points:

  • Activating mutations in the AVPR2 gene are associated with the rare X-linked condition nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis.
  • NSIAD is associated with hyponatremia, decreased serum osmolality and inappropriately increased urinary osmolality. Early clinical symptoms in infancy include hypotonia, irritability, vomiting and/or seizures. Symptoms in later life include malaise, dizziness, confusion, tiredness and headache.
  • NSIAD should be considered in female, as well as male, patients who present with unexplained hyponatremia and decreased serum osmolality. Family history may reveal relevant symptoms or biochemical features in other family members. However, family history may not always be informative due to the variable nature of the condition or if the proband has a de novo pathogenic variant.
  • A water load test with measurement of AVP may be informative in distinguishing NSIAD from SIADH. Measurement of co-peptin levels may be considered, in substitution for direct measurement of AVP.
  • Patients with NSIAD should be counseled about appropriate daily fluid volume intake. Potential episodes of fluid overload should be avoided.
Open access

Nikolaos Asonitis, Eva Kassi, Michalis Kokkinos, Ilias Giovanopoulos, Foteini Petychaki and Helen Gogas

Summary

Hypercalcemia of malignancy is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in hospitalized patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis, since it reflects an advanced cancer stage. Among all cancer in females, breast cancer is the most common malignancy, and it has the highest prevalence of hypercalcemia. Approximately 70% of patients with breast cancer have bone metastases and 10% of them will have hypercalcemia as a complication at some point in the disease. Herein, we report a 69-year-old female patient with metastatic breast cancer, who developed severe hypercalcemia in the course of her disease and was diagnosed with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). Intense hydration along with corticoisteroids and antiresorptive medication (calcitonin, bisphosphonates and denosumab) were administered to the patient. Despite the above treatment, serum calcium levels remain elevated and calcimimetic cinacalcet was added. Upon discontinuation of cinacalcet, calcium levels were raised and returned back to the normal levels following re-initiation of the calcimimetic. Her calcium level restored to normal, and she was discharged with the following medical treatment: denosumab monthly, and cinacalcet at a titrated dose of 90 mg per day. The patient is followed as an outpatient and 11 months later, her calcium level remained within the normal range.

Learning points:

  • Hypercalcemia of malignancy is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in hospitalized patients.
  • Breast cancer has the highest prevalence of hypercalcemia.
  • The cornerstone of therapy remains the intense hydration and intravenous bisphosphonates (preferably zoledronic acid).
  • In case of persistent hypercalcemia of malignancy, the administration of calcimimetic cinacalcet could be an additional effective therapeutic option.
Open access

Sulaiman Haji Ali, K Aljenaee, W A Wan Mahmood and M Hatunic

Summary

Hypothyroidism is a recognized side effect of thalidomide drugs. We herein report a case of 83-year-old Irish female with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma and a background history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Our patient received pomalidomide and multiple courses of chemotherapy and achieved very good initial response for her multiple myeloma but subsequently she relapsed. She did not have any past history of thyroid disease or family history of thyroid disorders. Prior to treatment with pomalidomide, her thyroid function test was completely normal. She was commenced on pomalidomide in February 2017. Four weeks post treatment, she presented with worsening fatigue, and as a part of her workup, a thyroid function test was performed. Her free T4 was low at 7.2 pmol/L (reference range: 9.0–20.0) while her TSH was elevated at 44.7 mIU/L (reference range: 0.35–4.94). Pomalidomide treatment was terminated, and she was commenced on thyroid hormonal therapy replacement therapy with thyroxine with good clinical and biochemical response. Practitioners prescribing pomalidomide should be aware of this potential complication and patients who are receiving immunomodulatory drugs like pomalidomide should undergo regular thyroid hormone levels screen.

Learning points:

  • Overt hypothyroidism is a side effect of pomalidomide.
  • Thyroid function test should be included as a screening test with regular review in patients receiving pomalidomide.
  • Unexplained worsening fatigue in patients receiving pomalidomide should raise the possibility of overt hypothyroidism.
Open access

Gordon Sloan, Amjad Ali and Jonathan Webster

Summary

Ketoacidosis occurring during lactation has been described infrequently. The condition is incompletely understood, but it appears to be associated with a combination of increased metabolic demands during lactation, reduction in carbohydrate intake and acute illness. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman, 8 weeks post-partum, who was exclusively breastfeeding her child whilst following a low carbohydrate diet. She developed gastroenteritis and was unable to tolerate an oral diet for several days. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis on admission with a blood 3-hydroxybutyrate of 5.4 mmol/L. She was treated with intravenous dextrose and intravenous sodium bicarbonate, and given dietary advice to increase her carbohydrate intake. She made a rapid and full recovery. We provide a summary of the common causes of ketoacidosis and compare our case with other presentations of lactation ketoacidosis.

Learning points:

  • Ketoacidosis in the lactating woman is a rare cause of raised anion gap metabolic acidosis.
  • Low carbohydrate intake, starvation, intercurrent illness or a combination of these factors could put breastfeeding women at risk of ketoacidosis.
  • Ketoacidosis in the lactating woman has been shown to resolve rapidly with sufficient carbohydrate intake and intravenous dextrose.
  • Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential because the condition is reported to be reversible with a low chance of recurrence with appropriate dietary advice.
Open access

Colin L Knight, Shamil D Cooray, Jaideep Kulkarni, Michael Borschmann and Mark Kotowicz

A 51 year old man presented with sepsis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis. Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics was followed by directed narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and his neutrophil count recovered with support from granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) analogue transfusions. After a brief period of multi-modal therapy for nine days including potassium iodide (Lugol’s iodine), cholestyramine, propanolol and lithium to temper his persisting hyperthyroidism, a total thyroidectomy was performed while thyroid hormone levels remained at thyrotoxic levels. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated and he was discharged home on thyroxine. There is limited available evidence to guide treatment in this unique cohort of patients who require prompt management to avert impending clinical deterioration. This case report summarises the successful emergent control of thyrotoxicosis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis complicated by sepsis, and demonstrates the safe use of multi-modal pharmacological therapies in preparation for total thyroidectomy.

Learning points:

  • Thioamide-induced agranulocytosis is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of which all prescribers and patients need to be aware.
  • A multi-modal preoperative pharmacological approach can be successful, even when thioamides are contraindicated, when needing to prepare a thyrotoxic patient for semi-urgent total thyroidectomy.
  • There is not enough evidence to confidently predict the safe timing when considering total thyroidectomy in this patient cohort, and therefore it should be undertaken when attempts have first been made to safely reduce thyroid hormone levels.
  • Thyroid storm is frequently cited as a potentially severe complication of thyroid surgery undertaken in thyrotoxic patients, although the evidence does not demonstrate this as a common occurrence.
Open access

Navira Samad and Ian Fraser

Summary

Colonoscopy is a useful tool in modern medicine and is increasingly employed for both diagnostic and treatment reasons. However, its effectiveness is highly reliant on the quality of bowel cleansing. Among different bowel-cleansing agents available, PEG (polyethylene glycol) is considered to be the safest cleansing agent, especially in relation to fluid and electrolyte problems. We present here a case of severe symptomatic hyponatremia that developed after the use of PEG for an elective colonoscopy. This case highlights that despite the use of PEG-based preparations, life-threatening fluid and electrolyte disturbances can still occur in patients with risk factors, such as old age, use of thiazide diuretics and SSRIs, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and a history of electrolyte problems. These patients should be closely monitored when undertaking bowel cleansing and should receive prompt care in the event of complications, to avoid permanent neurological sequelae and death. Rapid correction of sodium levels in patients requiring treatment of hyponatremia should be avoided to prevent complications such as osmotic demyelination syndrome.

Learning points:

  • PEG is considered to be the safest bowel-cleansing agents among different options available, but it can still cause significant side effects in susceptible individuals.
  • Those at risk of developing adverse events include elderly individuals, patients with chronic kidney disease, heart failure or previous history of electrolyte problems and those taking thiazide diuretics and SSRIs.
  • All such patients should be closely monitored i.e. have their metabolic profile checked prior to the commencement of bowel cleansing and a low threshold should be kept for the initiation of investigations and treatment in case of development of symptoms.
  • Medications with a potential of causing fluid and electrolytes such as thiazide diuretics and SSRIs should be withheld while patient is undertaking bowel preparation.
  • Hyponatremia in a hospitalized patient can be multifactorial, and the treatment principles are based on duration of onset, presence of symptoms and patients volume status.
  • Overzealous correction of sodium levels during treatment of hyponatremia can result in serious complications such as osmotic demyelination syndrome.
Open access

Emilia Sbardella, George Farah, Ahmed Fathelrahman, Simon Cudlip, Olaf Ansorge, Niki Karavitaki and Ashley B Grossman

Summary

Pituitary adenomas are a common intracranial neoplasm, usually demonstrating a benign phenotype. They can be classified according to pathological, radiological or clinical behaviour as typical, atypical or carcinomas, invasive or noninvasive, and aggressive or nonaggressive. Prolactinomas account for 40–60% of all pituitary adenomas, with dopamine agonists representing the first-line treatment and surgery/radiotherapy reserved for drug intolerance/resistance or in neuro-ophthalmological emergencies. We present the case of a 62-year-old man with an apparently indolent prolactin-secreting macroadenoma managed with partial resection and initially showing a biochemical response to cabergoline. Five years later, the tumour became resistant to cabergoline, despite a substantial increase in dosage, showing rapid growth and causing worsening of vision. The patient then underwent two further transsphenoidal operations and continued on high-dose cabergoline; despite these interventions, the tumour continued enlarging and prolactin increased to 107 269 U/L. Histology of the third surgical specimen demonstrated features of aggressive behaviour (atypical adenoma with a high cell proliferation index) not present in the tumour removed at the first operation. Subsequently, he was referred for radiotherapy aiming to control tumour growth.

Learning points:

  • The development of secondary resistance to dopamine agonists (DAs) is a serious sign as it may be associated with de-differentiation of the prolactinoma and thus of aggressive or malignant transformation.
  • Significant de-differentiation of the adenoma documented on consecutive histologies suggests a possible transition to malignancy.
  • A combination of histological ‘alarm’ features associated with persistent growth and escape from DAs treatment in recurrent adenomas should alert clinicians and demands close follow-up.
  • A multidisciplinary approach by pathologists, endocrinologists and neurosurgeons is essential.
Open access

Ernesto Solá, Carmen Rivera, Michelle Mangual, José Martinez, Kelvin Rivera and Ricardo Fernandez

Summary

Diabetes mellitus was identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB) infection, and relapse after therapy. The risk of acquiring TB is described as comparable to that of HIV population. The fact that diabetics are 3× times more prone to develop pulmonary TB than nondiabetics cannot be overlooked. With DM recognized as global epidemic, and TB affecting one-third of the world population, physicians must remain vigilant. We present a 45-year-old woman born in Dominican Republic (DR), with 10-year history of T2DM treated with metformin, arrived to our Urgency Room complaining of dry cough for the past 3months. Interview unveiled unintentional 15lbs weight loss, night sweats, occasional unquantified fever, and general malaise but denied bloody sputum. She traveled to DR 2years before, with no known ill exposure. Physical examination showed a thin body habitus, otherwise well appearing woman with stable vital signs, presenting solely right middle lung field ronchi. LDH, ESR, hsCRP and Hg A1C were elevated. Imaging revealed a right middle lobe cavitation. Sputum for AFB disclosed active pulmonary TB. Our case portrays that the consideration of TB as differential diagnosis in diabetics should be exercised with the same strength, as it is undertaken during the evaluation of HIV patients with lung cavitation. Inability to recognize TB will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.

Learning points

  • Diabetes mellitus should be considered an important risk factor for the reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • High clinical suspicious should be taken into consideration as radiological findings for pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with diabetes mellitus may be atypical, involving middle and lower lobes.
  • Inability to recognize pulmonary tuberculosis will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.