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  • IgG4–related systemic disease x
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Open access

Danielle R Bullock, Bradley S Miller, H Brent Clark and Patricia M Hobday

Summary

IgG4-related hypophysitis is an important diagnostic consideration in patients with a pituitary mass or pituitary dysfunction and can initially present with headaches, visual field deficits and/or endocrine dysfunction. Isolated IgG4-related pituitary disease is rare, with most cases of IgG4-related disease involving additional organ systems. We report the case of a teenage female patient with isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis, diagnosed after initially presenting with headaches. Our patient had no presenting endocrinologic abnormalities. She was treated with surgical resection, prednisolone and rituximab with no further progression of disease and sustained normal endocrine function. This case, the youngest described patient with isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis and uniquely lacking endocrinologic abnormalities, adds to the limited reports of isolated pituitary disease. The use of rituximab for isolated pituitary disease has never been described. While IgG4-related hypophysitis has been increasingly recognized, substantial evidence concerning the appropriate treatment and follow-up of these patients is largely lacking.

Learning points:

  • IgG4-related hypophysitis most often occurs in the setting of additional organ involvement but can be an isolated finding. This diagnosis should therefore be considered in a patient presenting with pituitary abnormalities.

  • Most patients with IgG4-related hypophysitis will have abnormal pituitary function, but normal functioning does not exclude this diagnosis.

  • Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of therapy for IgG4-related disease, with other immunosuppressive regimens being reserved for refractory cases. Further research is needed to understand the effectiveness of corticosteroid-sparing regimens and whether there is utility in using these agents as first-line therapies.

Open access

Gabriela Alejandra Sosa, Soledad Bell, Silvia Beatriz Christiansen, Marcelo Pietrani, Mariela Glerean, Monica Loto, Soledad Lovazzano, Antonio Carrizo, Pablo Ajler and Patricia Fainstein Day

Summary

IgG4-related hypophysitis is a recently described entity belonging to the group of IgG4-related diseases. Many other organs can also be affected, and it is more common in older men. To date, 32 cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis have been reported in the literature, 11 of which included confirmatory tissue biopsy and the majority affecting multiple organs. The aim of this report is to present two cases of biopsy-proven IgG4-related hypophysitis occurring in two young female patients with no evidence of involvement of other organs at the time of diagnosis.

Learning points

  • IgG4-related hypophysitis belongs to the group of IgG4-related diseases, and is a fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis.

  • It is more common in older men, but young women may also present this type of hypophysitis.

  • Although involvement of other organs is frequent, isolated pituitary disease is possible.

  • Frequent clinical manifestations include anterior hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus.

  • The diagnosis may be confirmed with any of the following criteria: a pituitary biopsy with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, with more than ten IgG4-positive cells; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and a biopsy-proven involvement of another organ; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and IgG4 serum levels >140 mg/dl and sellar mass reduction and symptom improvement after corticosteroid treatment.

  • Glucocorticoids are recommended as first-line therapy.