Browse

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for :

  • Dehydration x
  • Hydrocortisone x
  • Diagnosis and Treatment x
Clear All
Open access

C Kamath, J Witczak, M A Adlan and L D Premawardhana

Summary

Thymic enlargement (TE) in Graves’ disease (GD) is often diagnosed incidentally when chest imaging is done for unrelated reasons. This is becoming more common as the frequency of chest imaging increases. There are currently no clear guidelines for managing TE in GD. Subject 1 is a 36-year-old female who presented with weight loss, increased thirst and passage of urine and postural symptoms. Investigations confirmed GD, non-PTH-dependent hypercalcaemia and Addison’s disease (AD). CT scans to exclude underlying malignancy showed TE but normal viscera. A diagnosis of hypercalcaemia due to GD and AD was made. Subject 2, a 52-year-old female, was investigated for recurrent chest infections, haemoptysis and weight loss. CT thorax to exclude chest malignancy, showed TE. Planned thoracotomy was postponed when investigations confirmed GD. Subject 3 is a 47-year-old female who presented with breathlessness, chest pain and shakiness. Investigations confirmed T3 toxicosis due to GD. A CT pulmonary angiogram to exclude pulmonary embolism showed TE. The CT appearances in all three subjects were consistent with benign TE. These subjects were given appropriate endocrine treatment only (without biopsy or thymectomy) as CT appearances showed the following appearances of benign TE – arrowhead shape, straight regular margins, absence of calcification and cyst formation and radiodensity equal to surrounding muscle. Furthermore, interval scans confirmed thymic regression of over 60% in 6 months after endocrine control. In subjects with CT appearances consistent with benign TE, a conservative policy with interval CT scans at 6 months after endocrine control will prevent inappropriate surgical intervention.

Learning points:

  • Chest imaging is common in modern clinical practice and incidental anterior mediastinal abnormalities are therefore diagnosed frequently.
  • Thymic enlargement (TE) associated with Graves’ disease (GD) is occasionally seen in view of the above.
  • There is no validated strategy to manage TE in GD at present.
  • However, CT (or MRI) scan features of the thymus may help characterise benign TE, and such subjects do not require thymic biopsy or surgery at presentation.
  • In them, an expectant ‘wait and see’ policy is recommended with GD treatment only, as the thymus will show significant regression 6 months after endocrine control.
Open access

Carlos Tavares Bello, Francisco Sousa Santos, João Sequeira Duarte and Carlos Vasconcelos

Summary

Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare clinical entity characterized by low circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) presenting with polyuria and volume depletion. Pituitary surgery is the most common cause of central DI in adults. Pituitary and hypothalamic disease, particularly invasive neoplasms, rarely cause DI, being idiopathic cases responsible for the majority of non-surgical cases. HIV patients, especially those with poor virulogical control, are prone to the development of CNS neoplasms, particularly lymphomas. These neoplasms usually become manifest with mass effects and seizures. Central DI and hypopituitarism are uncommon initial manifestations of primary CNS lymphomas. The authors describe the case of 29-year-old female, HIV-positive patient whose CNS lymphoma presented with DI.

Learning points:

  • Central diabetes insipidus has multiple causes and central nervous system lymphomas are not often considered in the differential diagnosis due to their low prevalence.
  • Accurate biochemical diagnosis should always be followed by etiological investigation.
  • The HIV population is at risk for many neoplasms, especially CNS lymphomas.
  • New-onset polyuria in an HIV-positive patient in the absence of focal neurological signs should raise the suspicion for a central nervous system process of neoplastic nature.
  • This clinical entity usually constitutes a therapeutical challenge, often requiring a multidisciplinary approach for optimal outcome.
Open access

Jasmeet Kaur, Luis Casas and Himangshu S Bose

Summary

Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted at the University of North Dakota, the Mercer University School of Medicine and the Memorial University Medical Center to identify the cause of this disease. The patient was admitted to a pediatric endocrinologist at the Sanford Health Center for salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. Lipoid CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, we identified two de novo heterozygous mutations (STAR c.444C>A (STAR p.N148K) and STAR c.557C>T (STAR p.R193X)) in the STAR gene, causing lipoid CAH. New onset lipoid CAH can occur through de novo mutations and is not restricted to any specific region of the world. This Scandinavian family was of Norwegian descent and had lipoid CAH due to a mutation in S TAR exons 4 and 5. Overexpression of the STAR p.N148K mutant in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells supplemented with an electron transport system showed activity similar to the background level, which was ∼10% of that observed with wild-type (WT) STAR. Protein-folding analysis showed that the finger printing of the STAR p.N148K mutant is also different from the WT protein. Inherited STAR mutations may be more prevalent in some geographical areas but not necessarily restricted to those regions.

Learning points

  • STAR mutations cause lipoid CAH.
  • This is a pure population from a caucasian family.
  • Mutation ablated STAR activity.
  • The mutation resulted in loosely folded conformation of STAR.