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Open access

Rémi Goupil, Martin Wolley, Jacobus Ungerer, Brett McWhinney, Kuniaki Mukai, Mitsuhide Naruse, Richard D Gordon and Michael Stowasser

Summary

In patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) undergoing adrenal venous sampling (AVS), cortisol levels are measured to assess lateralization of aldosterone overproduction. Concomitant adrenal autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion therefore have the potential to confound AVS results. We describe a case where metanephrine was measured during AVS to successfully circumvent this problem. A 55-year-old hypertensive male had raised plasma aldosterone/renin ratios and PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing. Failure of plasma cortisol to suppress overnight following dexamethasone and persistently suppressed corticotrophin were consistent with adrenal hypercortisolism. On AVS, comparison of adrenal and peripheral A/F ratios (left 5.7 vs peripheral 1.0; right 1.7 vs peripheral 1.1) suggested bilateral aldosterone production, with the left gland dominant but without contralateral suppression. However, using aldosterone/metanephrine ratios (left 9.7 vs peripheral 2.4; right 1.3 vs peripheral 2.5), aldosterone production lateralized to the left with good contralateral suppression. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy with peri-operative glucocorticoid supplementation to prevent adrenal insufficiency. Pathological examination revealed adrenal cortical adenomas producing both cortisol and aldosterone within a background of aldosterone-producing cell clusters. Hypertension improved and cured of PA and hypercortisolism were confirmed by negative post-operative fludrocortisone suppression and overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression testing. Routine dexamethasone suppression testing in patients with PA permits detection of concurrent hypercortisolism which can confound AVS results and cause unilateral PA to be misdiagnosed as bilateral with patients thereby denied potentially curative surgical treatment. In such patients, measurement of plasma metanephrine during AVS may overcome this issue.

Learning points

  • Simultaneous autonomous overproduction of cortisol and aldosterone is increasingly recognised although still apparently uncommon.

  • Because cortisol levels are used during AVS to correct for differences in dilution of adrenal with non-adrenal venous blood when assessing for lateralisation, unilateral cortisol overproduction with contralateral suppression could confound the interpretation of AVS results

  • Measuring plasma metanephrine during AVS to calculate lateralisation ratios may circumvent this problem.

Open access

Vivienne Yoon, Aliya Heyliger, Takashi Maekawa, Hironobu Sasano, Kelley Carrick, Stacey Woodruff, Jennifer Rabaglia, Richard J Auchus and Hans K Ghayee

Summary

Objective: To recognize that benign adrenal adenomas can co-secrete excess aldosterone and cortisol, which can change clinical management.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical and histological features of an adrenal tumor co-secreting aldosterone and cortisol in a patient. Biochemical testing as well as postoperative immunohistochemistry was carried out on tissue samples for assessing enzymes involved in steroidogenesis.

Results: A patient presented with hypertension, hypokalemia, and symptoms related to hypercortisolism. The case demonstrated suppressed renin concentrations with an elevated aldosterone:renin ratio, abnormal dexamethasone suppression test results, and elevated midnight salivary cortisol concentrations. The patient had a right adrenal nodule with autonomous cortisol production and interval growth. Right adrenalectomy was carried out. Postoperatively, the patient tolerated the surgery, but he was placed on a short course of steroid replacement given a subnormal postoperative serum cortisol concentration. Long-term follow-up of the patient showed that his blood pressure and glucose levels had improved. Histopathology slides showed positive staining for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11β-hydroxylase, and 21 hydroxylase.

Conclusion: In addition to the clinical manifestations and laboratory values, the presence of these enzymes in this type of tumor provides support that the tumor in this patient was able to produce mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. The recognition of patients with a tumor that is co-secreting aldosterone and cortisol can affect decisions to treat with glucocorticoids perioperatively to avoid adrenal crisis.

Learning points

  • Recognition of the presence of adrenal adenomas co-secreting mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.

  • Consideration for perioperative and postoperative glucocorticoid use in the treatment of co-secreting adrenal adenomas.