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Emma Towslee Cottage Children’s Medical Center, Santa Barbara, California, USA

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Adrienne Macdonald Cottage Children’s Medical Center, Santa Barbara, California, USA

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Zohreh Shoar Cottage Children’s Medical Center, Santa Barbara, California, USA

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Summary

A previously healthy 17-year-old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of vomiting, shortness of breath, and tachycardia. She was found to have an elevated blood glucose and was admitted for presumed new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). During the admission, she was noted to have frequent episodes of hypoglycemia despite conservative insulin dosing and high urine output with glucosuria, which seemed out of proportion to her glucose levels and fluid status. She also had persistent hyponatremia despite normalization of blood glucose. Further work-up was initiated to investigate alternative or additional diagnoses to explain these atypical findings. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level was elevated, consistent with the diagnosis of Addison’s disease, which led to the subsequent diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II (APS-2). This is one of the first reports in the literature of concurrent diagnosis of T1DM and Addison’s disease at initial presentation and demonstrates the importance of not anchoring to one diagnosis.

Learning points

  • This case shows the importance of considering multiple diagnoses and investigating atypical signs and symptoms.

  • This case highlights the importance of a thorough history including review of systems.

  • Hyponatremia and recurrent hypoglycemia in a person with type 1 diabetes should raise suspicion for adrenal insufficiency.

  • This case makes us consider the screening for Addison’s disease in a person with new onset type 1 diabetes in addition to autoimmune thyroid disease and celiac disease.

  • People with an autoimmune disease should be monitored for other autoimmune diseases in the future.

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Christina Lee Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland Children’s Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Leah Hirschman Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland Children’s Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Teresa York Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Maryland Children’s Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Paula Newton Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Maryland Children’s Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Summary

Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage (NAH) occurs in up to 3% of infants and is the most common adrenal mass in newborns. The most common presentation of NAH is an asymptomatic palpable flank mass which resolves over time without intervention. In rare cases, NAH can present as hemorrhage, shock, or adrenal insufficiency. This case describes a preterm infant born with severe anemia in the setting of bilateral adrenal hemorrhages with resulting adrenal insufficiency. The infant was successfully treated with blood transfusions and steroids. This is a unique presentation of NAH as it was bilateral, presented with severe anemia, and resulted in prolonged adrenal insufficiency.

Learning points

  • Consider adrenal hemorrhage for cases of severe anemia at birth.

  • Adrenal insufficiency is a rare complication of adrenal hemorrhage.

  • Adrenal recovery can take months, if not years.

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Sarah N Parry Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Namson S Lau Metabolism & Obesity Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Liverpool Diabetes Collaboration, Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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Summary

Approximately 80% of adrenal incidentalomas are benign, and development into adrenal cortical cancer is extremely rare. This is a major reason behind clinical guidelines recommending surveillance of incidentalomas for a relatively short duration of up to 5 years. Surveillance of lesions less than 1 cm is not routinely recommended. A 70-year-old lady was diagnosed with a non-hyperfunctioning 8 mm right adrenal lesion. She underwent annual biochemical and radiological assessment for 5 years before surveillance was extended to 2-yearly intervals. The lesion was stable in size, and radiological characteristics were consistent with a benign adenoma. Seven years after the initial detection of the adrenal lesion, she developed acute abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a 7 cm right adrenal lesion, which was surgically resected and histologically confirmed to be adrenal cortical cancer. She died 1 year later. Clinical guidelines have moved towards a shortened duration of surveillance of incidentalomas. Even though malignant transformation is a rare event, it is possible that this will result in a delayed diagnosis of adrenal cortical cancer, a highly aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of an adrenal lesion of less than 1 cm developing into adrenal cortical cancer.

Learning points

  • Adrenal incidentalomas are increasingly common.

  • Clinical practice guidelines exist to aid in differentiating benign and malignant lesions and assessing functional status.

  • Transformation of adrenal incidentalomas to adrenal cortical carcinomas is a rare but recognised event.

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Noor Alnasrallah Department of Internal Medicine, Adan Hospital, Kuwait

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Khaled Aljenaee Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine and diabetes division, Adan Hospital, Kuwait

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Maryam AlMurshed Department of Laboratory Medicine, Anatomical Pathology/Neuropathology Division, Sabah Hospital, Kuwait

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Sulaiman Hajji Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine and diabetes division, Adan Hospital, Kuwait

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Summary

Gonadotroph adenomas are the most common type of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. However, functioning gonadotroph adenomas causing clinical manifestations are rare. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with an incidental finding of a pituitary gland mass. A pituitary MRI revealed a 3 cm macroadenoma, and laboratory investigations revealed elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and total testosterone levels. A diagnosis of functioning FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was considered, with possible concomitant luteinizing hormone secretion, given the elevated testosterone, prompting further evaluation. Testicular ultrasound showed bilaterally enlarged testicles, and visual field testing revealed a monocular superior temporal defect. Transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma was the treatment of choice. Histopathology assessment confirmed the diagnosis of gonadotroph-secreting adenoma, with positive staining for FSH. Within the 12-week postoperative period, FSH and testosterone levels normalized, and the patient experienced significant improvement in vision, along with the resolution of macroorchidism. While functional gonadotroph adenomas are rare, patients can present with a wide range of symptoms that are often unnoticeable due to their slow development. Careful evaluation can help guide multidisciplinary management to achieve full remission.

Learning points

  • Endocrine evaluation is indicated in all cases of pituitary incidentalomas to determine functional status.

  • Clinically functioning gonadotroph adenomas, while rare, pose a diagnostic challenge and require careful clinical evaluation.

  • Transsphenoidal surgery is the mainstay of treatment of functioning gonadotroph adenomas, with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team to achieve desirable outcomes.

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Chi-Ta Hsieh Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

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Jui-Ting Yu Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

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Tang-Yi Tsao Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

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Yao Hsien Tseng Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

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Summary

A 69-year-old woman presented with weight loss, fever, dizziness, exertional dyspnea, and drenching night sweats. Imaging showed a thyroid goiter at the left lobe that measured 5.6 × 3.4 × 3.5 cm in size. On computed tomography, she was found to have large adrenal masses. Core needle biopsy of the left thyroid mass revealed the presence of a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) typically develop in lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissues. There have been cases where the thyroid has been affected, and the secondary involvement of the adrenal gland is common. In reported cases, 7–59% of patients with NHL exhibited symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Our patient presented no symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The patient had bilateral adrenal lymphomas that led to adrenal insufficiency. Immunochemotherapy provided a good response in this case, as seen by the rapid improvement in thyroid and adrenal mass on follow-up PET/CT.

Learning points

  • Thyroid lymphoma requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis in patients with a rapidly growing thyroid tumor, even in the absence of chronic inflammatory thyroid disease.

  • Depending on the extent of involvement, adrenal lymphoma may rapidly cause adrenal insufficiency.

  • In the setting of acute illness, appropriate levels of plasma cortisol are often unclear, necessitating early initiation of glucocorticoid therapy based on clinical suspicion, especially when features like bilateral adrenal masses and elevated ACTH levels are present.

  • Treatment modalities include chemotherapy and radiation therapy for localized lesions, together with hormone replacement for organ dysfunction.

  • The origin of the tumor influences the clinical outcome of patients with lymphoma simultaneously involving the thyroid and adrenal glands.

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