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Kemal Fariz Kalista Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Hanum Citra Nur Rahma Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Dicky Levenus Tahapary Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Saut Horas Nababan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Chynthia Olivia Maurine Jasirwan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Juferdy Kurniawan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya Lesmana Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Andri Sanityoso Sulaiman Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Irsan Hasan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Rino Gani Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Summary

Hypoglycemia is one of the paraneoplastic syndrome manifestations that arise from primary and secondary liver cancer. Hypoglycemia usually presents in the late stage of the disease and indicates a poor prognosis. This case series displays the characteristics profile of patients with primary and secondary liver cancer who are presented with hypoglycemia in a tertiary referral hospital in Indonesia. The study included 41 liver cancer patients who were presented with hypoglycemia. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 51.2% of patients, metastatic liver disease in 14.6% of patients, and undiagnosed liver cancer in 34.1% of patients. The mean age was 47.7 years with male predominance (65.9%). Jaundice was found in 58.5% and hepatomegaly in 70.7% of patients. The mean (± S.D.) initial blood glucose was 42.15 ± 17.11 mg/dL and the Child–Pugh score was 9.93 ± 2.11. Based on imaging, tumor diameter was 12.6 ± 6.9 cm, multiple (61%), and involving both lobes (61%). Treatments for hypoglycemia included oral/enteral feeding, intravenous dextrose, and steroids. No treatment was given for the cancer because all patients were in an advanced stage. The treatment resulted in 41.5% blood glucose being controlled, 56.1% refractory, and 2.4% persistent. Mortality was 70.7% and in average occurred 5.76 ± 4.99 days after hypoglycemia. The mainstay of treatment in these cases is treating the tumor with cytoreduction. However, it was difficult to do cytoreduction because the tumor was already in an advanced stage. Beneficial supportive treatments for maintaining normal blood glucose are frequent meals, dextrose infusion, steroids, and glucagon.

Learning points

  • Hypoglycemia in liver cancer occurs due to the failure of the liver to fulfill body glucose demand because the liver parenchyma has been largely replaced by the tumor, in addition to the high production of insulin growth factor (IGF).

  • Hypoglycemia is often caused by islet cell and non-islet cell tumors, with a higher occurrence in non-islet cell tumors due to paraneoplastic syndrome and the high metabolic requirements of the tumor.

  • The mainstay of NICTH treatment is treating the tumor with cytoreduction. However, in an advanced stage, cytoreduction therapy is often challenging to conduct. Beneficial supportive treatments for controlling blood glucose are frequent meals, dextrose infusion, and the injection of steroids and glucagon.

  • Steroids play a beneficial role in the treatment of persistent hypoglycemia in hepatocellular carcinoma by stimulating gluconeogenesis and increasing lipolysis. Steroids also have roles in the inhibition of peripheral glucose intake, suppression of big IGF-2 production, and modulation of the GH–IGF axis.

Open access
Katherine Wu Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Shejil Kumar Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Ed Hsiao Department of Radiology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Ian Kerridge Department of Haematology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Min Ru Qiu Department of Anatomical Pathology, SydPath, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
St Vincent’s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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Rhonda Siddall Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Roderick Clifton-Bligh Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Cancer Genetics Unit, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, Australia

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Anthony J Gill Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, Australia
Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia

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Matti L Gild Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Cancer Genetics Unit, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, Australia

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Summary

RET mutations are implicated in 60% of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases. The RET-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor selpercatinib is associated with unprecedented efficacy compared to previous multi-kinase treatments. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal histiocytic neoplasm usually driven by somatic BRAF mutations, resulting in dysregulated MAPK signalling. We describe a 22-year-old woman with metastatic MTC to regional lymph nodes, lung and liver. Tumour tissue harboured a somatic pathogenic RET variant p.(M918T) and selpercatinib was commenced. She experienced sustained clinical, biochemical and radiological responses. Two years later, she developed rapidly progressive apical lung nodules, prompting biopsy. Histopathology demonstrated LCH with a rare BRAF variant p.(V600_K601>D). The lung nodules improved with inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesize that selective pressure from RET blockade may have activated a downstream somatic BRAF mutation, resulting in pulmonary LCH. We recommend continued vigilance for neoplasms driven by dysregulated downstream MAPK signalling in patients undergoing selective RET inhibition.

Learning points

  • Patients with RET-altered MTC can experience rapid disease improvement and sustained disease stability with selective RET blockade (selpercatinib).

  • LCH is a clonal neoplasm driven by MAPK activation, for which the most common mechanism is BRAF mutation.

  • Both MTC and pulmonary LCH are driven by dysregulated MAPK signalling pathway activation.

  • We hypothesise that the RET-specific inhibitor selpercatinib may have caused the activation of dormant LCH secondary to selective pressure and clonal proliferation.

Open access
R K Dharmaputra Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, Gold Coast, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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C M Piesse Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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S Chaubey Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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A K Sinha Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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H C Chiam Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Surgery, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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Summary

A 48-year-old Asian male, presented to the hospital for an elective total thyroidectomy in the context of 6.3 cm thyroid nodule. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule confirmed papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with some atypical histiocytes. He has a history of idiopathic arginine vasopressin deficiency (AVP-D) and has been taking oral DDAVP 100 µg daily, self-adjusting the dose based on thirst and polyuria. Additionally, he also has a history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. His total thyroidectomy was aborted due to significant intraoperative bleeding, and his admission was further complicated by post-operative hyponatraemic seizure. Thyroid histology revealed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), and further investigation with contrast CT demonstrated multi-organ involvement of the thyroid, lungs, and bones.

Learning points

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a condition that can affect one or more organ systems, including the pituitary, where it can present as AVP deficiency. Strict monitoring of fluid balance, as well as serial monitoring of serum sodium, is essential in all patients with AVP-D in the perioperative setting.

  • Iatrogenic hyponatraemic seizure is an uncommon but serious complication of DDAVP treatment in hospitalised patients with AVP-D. DDAVP dosing must be carefully monitored.

  • LCH with multisystem involvement is an important mimic for metastatic conditions, and histological diagnosis is essential to guide treatment and prognosis.

  • Although LCH without bone marrow involvement is unlikely to increase the risk of bleeding, its effect on tissue integrity may make surgery more challenging.

  • BRAF-V600E mutation is an important driver mutation and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of LCH.

Open access
Kanella Kantreva Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Stavroula A Paschou Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Katerina Stefanaki Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Kanella Pappa Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Paraskevi Kazakou Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Dionysios Vrachnis Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Evangelia Kavoura Pathology Department, IASO Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Kitty Pavlakis Pathology Department, IASO Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Eirini Giovannopoulou Department of Gynecological Oncology, IASO Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Konstantinos Lathouras Department of Gynecological Oncology, IASO Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Maria Alevizaki Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Katerina Saltiki Endocrine Unit and Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Summary

Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma that comprises 2–5% of all ovarian teratomas. Malignant transformation of struma ovarii occurs in less than 5% of all cases, and metastatic disease is even rarer. We report two cases initially diagnosed with benign struma ovarii that presented malignant transformation, specifically highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of the ovary (HDFCO), some years after the first diagnosis. Case 1 concerns a 37-year-old female featuring HDFCO of the right ovary with multiple metastatic foci, who was diagnosed with benign struma ovarii 14 years ago. Case 2 concerns a 26-year-old female diagnosed with HDFCO of the left ovary. This patient was initially diagnosed with benign struma ovarii 6 years ago that recurred 4 years after the diagnosis. Both patients were treated with surgery, adjunctive total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine (131I) therapy.

Learning points

  • Malignant transformation of struma ovarii is very rare (<5%).

  • Diagnosis of HDFCO without extra ovarian dissemination is difficult due to the resemblance of its histological appearance with normal thyroid tissue.

  • There is no consensus on the postoperative treatment of malignant struma ovarii (MSO). Clinical and histological features of MSO should be assessed for the postoperative treatment decisions.

  • TSH suppression and thyroglobulin level measurements are necessary for patient follow-up.

Open access
Sarah N Parry Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Namson S Lau Metabolism & Obesity Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Liverpool Diabetes Collaboration, Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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Summary

Approximately 80% of adrenal incidentalomas are benign, and development into adrenal cortical cancer is extremely rare. This is a major reason behind clinical guidelines recommending surveillance of incidentalomas for a relatively short duration of up to 5 years. Surveillance of lesions less than 1 cm is not routinely recommended. A 70-year-old lady was diagnosed with a non-hyperfunctioning 8 mm right adrenal lesion. She underwent annual biochemical and radiological assessment for 5 years before surveillance was extended to 2-yearly intervals. The lesion was stable in size, and radiological characteristics were consistent with a benign adenoma. Seven years after the initial detection of the adrenal lesion, she developed acute abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a 7 cm right adrenal lesion, which was surgically resected and histologically confirmed to be adrenal cortical cancer. She died 1 year later. Clinical guidelines have moved towards a shortened duration of surveillance of incidentalomas. Even though malignant transformation is a rare event, it is possible that this will result in a delayed diagnosis of adrenal cortical cancer, a highly aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of an adrenal lesion of less than 1 cm developing into adrenal cortical cancer.

Learning points

  • Adrenal incidentalomas are increasingly common.

  • Clinical practice guidelines exist to aid in differentiating benign and malignant lesions and assessing functional status.

  • Transformation of adrenal incidentalomas to adrenal cortical carcinomas is a rare but recognised event.

Open access
Chi-Ta Hsieh Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

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Jui-Ting Yu Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

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Tang-Yi Tsao Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

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Yao Hsien Tseng Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

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Summary

A 69-year-old woman presented with weight loss, fever, dizziness, exertional dyspnea, and drenching night sweats. Imaging showed a thyroid goiter at the left lobe that measured 5.6 × 3.4 × 3.5 cm in size. On computed tomography, she was found to have large adrenal masses. Core needle biopsy of the left thyroid mass revealed the presence of a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) typically develop in lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissues. There have been cases where the thyroid has been affected, and the secondary involvement of the adrenal gland is common. In reported cases, 7–59% of patients with NHL exhibited symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Our patient presented no symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The patient had bilateral adrenal lymphomas that led to adrenal insufficiency. Immunochemotherapy provided a good response in this case, as seen by the rapid improvement in thyroid and adrenal mass on follow-up PET/CT.

Learning points

  • Thyroid lymphoma requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis in patients with a rapidly growing thyroid tumor, even in the absence of chronic inflammatory thyroid disease.

  • Depending on the extent of involvement, adrenal lymphoma may rapidly cause adrenal insufficiency.

  • In the setting of acute illness, appropriate levels of plasma cortisol are often unclear, necessitating early initiation of glucocorticoid therapy based on clinical suspicion, especially when features like bilateral adrenal masses and elevated ACTH levels are present.

  • Treatment modalities include chemotherapy and radiation therapy for localized lesions, together with hormone replacement for organ dysfunction.

  • The origin of the tumor influences the clinical outcome of patients with lymphoma simultaneously involving the thyroid and adrenal glands.

Open access
Isabella Chiardi Thyroid Unit of Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lugano Regional Hospital, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan, Italy

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Priska Gaffuri Istituto Cantonale di Patologia, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland

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Andrea Leoncini Servizio di Radiologia e Radiologia Interventistica, Istituto di Imaging Della Svizzera Italiana (IIMSI), Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland

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Pierpaolo Trimboli Thyroid Unit of Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lugano Regional Hospital, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland
Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Lugano, Switzerland

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Summary

Thyroid metastases from nonthyroidal malignancies (NTMs) represent a diagnostic challenge, often displaying heterogeneous clinical manifestations. These metastases are rare but significant, accounting for approximately 2% of thyroid malignancies. Distinguishing them from primary thyroid malignancies is challenging due to the lack of specific ultrasound features, and the ultrasound-based risk stratification systems offer limited utility in such cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology is crucial for definitive diagnosis, yet it may not always provide accurate results. In this case report, we describe a unique instance of thyroid metastases originating from renal cell carcinoma, emphasizing the complexities in diagnosis and the importance of considering oncological conditions when assessing thyroid masses. Awareness of thyroid metastasis from NTMs, particularly in cases of diffuse thyroid hypoechogenicity and hypothyroidism, is essential for clinicians in their diagnostic approach.

Learning points

  • Thyroid metastases from nonthyroidal malignancies are diagnostic challenges due to their heterogeneous clinical presentations, often mimicking primary thyroid malignancies.

  • Thyroid metastases from nonthyroidal malignancies are relatively rare, but they still account for approximately 2% of thyroid malignancies.

  • It is fundamental to consider oncological conditions when assessing thyroid masses, especially in cases of diffuse thyroid hypoechogenicity, hypothyroidism, and history of other tumors.

  • Thyroid presentation is quite similar to that of autoimmune hypothyroidism, endocrinologists must be aware of the possibility of thyroid hypofunction due to the massive invasion of the parenchyma.

Open access
John J Orrego Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA

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Joseph A Chorny Department of Pathology, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA

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Summary

Unlike medullary thyroid carcinomas, follicular cell-derived thyroid malignancies have rarely been associated with paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes. An ultrarare case of a middle-aged man with heavily treated broadly metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory widely invasive Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) of the thyroid with two synchronous paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, T3 thyrotoxicosis and hypercalcemia of malignancy, is discussed here. The levothyroxine-induced T3 thyrotoxicosis was a gradual process that became more noticeable as the tumor burden, refractory to different modalities of therapy, expanded. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D-mediated hypercalcemia, on the other hand, developed in a manner of weeks, as it usually happens. It is important to emphasize that in patients with metastatic Hürthle cell and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid, on TSH suppressive therapy, the unexplained and progressive decline in FT4 and rise in FT3 levels, resulting in an elevated FT4/FT3 ratio, could be an indication of augmented type 1 (D1) and/or type 2 (D2) deiodinase expression in tumoral tissue, causing an increased conversion from the prohormone T4 into the active metabolite T3 via outer ring deiodination.

Learning points

  • Albeit extremely rare, some patients with thyroid cancer can present with more than one concomitant paraneoplastic syndrome.

  • Although medullary thyroid carcinoma is the thyroid malignancy that is usually associated with paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers have been rarely described as being the culprit.

  • In patients with metastatic Hürthle cell and follicular thyroid carcinomas, the unexplained and progressive decline in FT4 and rise in FT3 levels could be an indication of augmented type 1 (D1) and/or type 2 (D2) deiodinase expression in tumoral tissue, causing an increased conversion from T4 into T3 leading to T3 thyrotoxicosis.

Open access
Maria Flynn Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Christopher Noss Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Robert Miller Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Corey Adams Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Dean Ruether Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Denise Chan Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Janice Pasieka Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Kirstie Lithgow Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Summary

Carcinoid heart disease is a rare complication of carcinoid syndrome, resulting in right-sided valvular heart disease and subsequent heart failure due to long-term exposure to vasoactive substances. The management of this condition is complex, often requiring surgical intervention. Current perioperative regimens entail the use of prophylactic somatostatin analogs to prevent carcinoid crisis; however, regimens vary widely among practitioners and evidence supporting their efficacy in this clinical setting is mixed. This case report describes the perioperative management of a 65-year-old man with carcinoid heart disease requiring tricuspid and pulmonary valve replacement surgery. As an adjunct to somatostatin analog therapy, the novel tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor, telotristat, was initiated preoperatively. This combination resulted in normalization of preoperative urinary 5-HIAA levels. The patient successfully underwent tricuspid and pulmonic valve replacement without evidence of carcinoid crisis. This clinical case is the first published documenting the use of telotristat in the perioperative period in a patient with carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease and was associated with a good long-term outcome despite the high-risk nature of the case.

Learning points

  • Carcinoid crisis is a life-threatening complication of carcinoid syndrome, resulting in hemodynamic instability, bronchospasm, and arrhythmia.

  • Cardiac surgical patients with carcinoid syndrome present a unique challenge as they are subject to physiologic conditions and medications which can potentiate intraoperative carcinoid crisis.

  • Perioperative management of patients with carcinoid syndrome currently entails the use of prophylactic somatostatin analogs; however, these agents do not prevent carcinoid crisis in all cases.

  • Telotristat, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, shows promise as an adjunctive therapy to somatostatin analogs to reduce the risk of intraoperative carcinoid crisis.

Open access
Sandra Martens Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Bruno Lapauw Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Summary

Mitotane is used for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. It is administered when the carcinoma is unresectable, metastasized, or at high-risk of recurrence after resection. In addition, mitotane is considered to have direct adrenolytic effects. Because of its narrow therapeutic–toxic range, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is warranted. In 2020, a left-sided adrenal gland tumor was found (5.8 cm) in a 38-year-old man. Considering the size of this lesion and inability to exclude an adrenocortical carcinoma on imaging, a laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination determined presence of an adrenocortical carcinoma (pT2N0M0 ENSAT stadium II; ki67 10–15%). There was no evidence for residual or metastatic disease but given the high risk of recurrence, adjuvant therapy with mitotane was initiated. During TDM, a sudden and spuriously high level of mitotane was observed but without signs or symptoms of toxicity. After exploration, it was found that this high concentration was completely due to uncontrolled hypertriglyceridemia. After correction thereof, mitotane levels were again in the therapeutic range. This observation underscores the importance of TDM sampling in a fasting state with concurrent control of prevalent or incident dyslipidemia.

Learning points

  • TDM of mitotane is advocated to achieve therapeutic levels while avoiding toxicity. For correct TDM, sampling should be done at least 12 h after last intake of mitotane.

  • Although sampling in fasting conditions in not explicitly mentioned in the guidelines, fasting state should be considered as elevated serum triglyceride levels might cause spuriously high mitotane levels.

  • In patients undergoing treatment with mitotane and presenting with too high or unexplained fluctuating mitotane levels without signs or symptoms of toxicity, hypertriglyceridemia as a possible cause should be investigated.

  • If dyslipidemia occurs in patients under mitotane treatment, other causes than mitotane (e.g. alcohol abuse and diabetes) should be considered and appropriate treatment should be initiated.

Open access