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Kemal Fariz Kalista Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Hanum Citra Nur Rahma Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Dicky Levenus Tahapary Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Saut Horas Nababan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Chynthia Olivia Maurine Jasirwan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Juferdy Kurniawan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya Lesmana Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Andri Sanityoso Sulaiman Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Irsan Hasan Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Rino Gani Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Summary

Hypoglycemia is one of the paraneoplastic syndrome manifestations that arise from primary and secondary liver cancer. Hypoglycemia usually presents in the late stage of the disease and indicates a poor prognosis. This case series displays the characteristics profile of patients with primary and secondary liver cancer who are presented with hypoglycemia in a tertiary referral hospital in Indonesia. The study included 41 liver cancer patients who were presented with hypoglycemia. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 51.2% of patients, metastatic liver disease in 14.6% of patients, and undiagnosed liver cancer in 34.1% of patients. The mean age was 47.7 years with male predominance (65.9%). Jaundice was found in 58.5% and hepatomegaly in 70.7% of patients. The mean (± S.D.) initial blood glucose was 42.15 ± 17.11 mg/dL and the Child–Pugh score was 9.93 ± 2.11. Based on imaging, tumor diameter was 12.6 ± 6.9 cm, multiple (61%), and involving both lobes (61%). Treatments for hypoglycemia included oral/enteral feeding, intravenous dextrose, and steroids. No treatment was given for the cancer because all patients were in an advanced stage. The treatment resulted in 41.5% blood glucose being controlled, 56.1% refractory, and 2.4% persistent. Mortality was 70.7% and in average occurred 5.76 ± 4.99 days after hypoglycemia. The mainstay of treatment in these cases is treating the tumor with cytoreduction. However, it was difficult to do cytoreduction because the tumor was already in an advanced stage. Beneficial supportive treatments for maintaining normal blood glucose are frequent meals, dextrose infusion, steroids, and glucagon.

Learning points

  • Hypoglycemia in liver cancer occurs due to the failure of the liver to fulfill body glucose demand because the liver parenchyma has been largely replaced by the tumor, in addition to the high production of insulin growth factor (IGF).

  • Hypoglycemia is often caused by islet cell and non-islet cell tumors, with a higher occurrence in non-islet cell tumors due to paraneoplastic syndrome and the high metabolic requirements of the tumor.

  • The mainstay of NICTH treatment is treating the tumor with cytoreduction. However, in an advanced stage, cytoreduction therapy is often challenging to conduct. Beneficial supportive treatments for controlling blood glucose are frequent meals, dextrose infusion, and the injection of steroids and glucagon.

  • Steroids play a beneficial role in the treatment of persistent hypoglycemia in hepatocellular carcinoma by stimulating gluconeogenesis and increasing lipolysis. Steroids also have roles in the inhibition of peripheral glucose intake, suppression of big IGF-2 production, and modulation of the GH–IGF axis.

Open access
R K Dharmaputra Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, Gold Coast, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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C M Piesse Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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S Chaubey Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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A K Sinha Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Endocrinolgy and Diabetes, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Cairns Diabetes Centre, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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H C Chiam Cairns and Hinterland Hospital and Health Service, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Department of Surgery, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

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Summary

A 48-year-old Asian male, presented to the hospital for an elective total thyroidectomy in the context of 6.3 cm thyroid nodule. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule confirmed papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with some atypical histiocytes. He has a history of idiopathic arginine vasopressin deficiency (AVP-D) and has been taking oral DDAVP 100 µg daily, self-adjusting the dose based on thirst and polyuria. Additionally, he also has a history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. His total thyroidectomy was aborted due to significant intraoperative bleeding, and his admission was further complicated by post-operative hyponatraemic seizure. Thyroid histology revealed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), and further investigation with contrast CT demonstrated multi-organ involvement of the thyroid, lungs, and bones.

Learning points

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a condition that can affect one or more organ systems, including the pituitary, where it can present as AVP deficiency. Strict monitoring of fluid balance, as well as serial monitoring of serum sodium, is essential in all patients with AVP-D in the perioperative setting.

  • Iatrogenic hyponatraemic seizure is an uncommon but serious complication of DDAVP treatment in hospitalised patients with AVP-D. DDAVP dosing must be carefully monitored.

  • LCH with multisystem involvement is an important mimic for metastatic conditions, and histological diagnosis is essential to guide treatment and prognosis.

  • Although LCH without bone marrow involvement is unlikely to increase the risk of bleeding, its effect on tissue integrity may make surgery more challenging.

  • BRAF-V600E mutation is an important driver mutation and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of LCH.

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John J Orrego Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA

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Joseph A Chorny Department of Pathology, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA

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Summary

Unlike medullary thyroid carcinomas, follicular cell-derived thyroid malignancies have rarely been associated with paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes. An ultrarare case of a middle-aged man with heavily treated broadly metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory widely invasive Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) of the thyroid with two synchronous paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, T3 thyrotoxicosis and hypercalcemia of malignancy, is discussed here. The levothyroxine-induced T3 thyrotoxicosis was a gradual process that became more noticeable as the tumor burden, refractory to different modalities of therapy, expanded. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D-mediated hypercalcemia, on the other hand, developed in a manner of weeks, as it usually happens. It is important to emphasize that in patients with metastatic Hürthle cell and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid, on TSH suppressive therapy, the unexplained and progressive decline in FT4 and rise in FT3 levels, resulting in an elevated FT4/FT3 ratio, could be an indication of augmented type 1 (D1) and/or type 2 (D2) deiodinase expression in tumoral tissue, causing an increased conversion from the prohormone T4 into the active metabolite T3 via outer ring deiodination.

Learning points

  • Albeit extremely rare, some patients with thyroid cancer can present with more than one concomitant paraneoplastic syndrome.

  • Although medullary thyroid carcinoma is the thyroid malignancy that is usually associated with paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers have been rarely described as being the culprit.

  • In patients with metastatic Hürthle cell and follicular thyroid carcinomas, the unexplained and progressive decline in FT4 and rise in FT3 levels could be an indication of augmented type 1 (D1) and/or type 2 (D2) deiodinase expression in tumoral tissue, causing an increased conversion from T4 into T3 leading to T3 thyrotoxicosis.

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Maria Flynn Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Christopher Noss Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Robert Miller Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Corey Adams Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Dean Ruether Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Denise Chan Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Janice Pasieka Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Kirstie Lithgow Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Summary

Carcinoid heart disease is a rare complication of carcinoid syndrome, resulting in right-sided valvular heart disease and subsequent heart failure due to long-term exposure to vasoactive substances. The management of this condition is complex, often requiring surgical intervention. Current perioperative regimens entail the use of prophylactic somatostatin analogs to prevent carcinoid crisis; however, regimens vary widely among practitioners and evidence supporting their efficacy in this clinical setting is mixed. This case report describes the perioperative management of a 65-year-old man with carcinoid heart disease requiring tricuspid and pulmonary valve replacement surgery. As an adjunct to somatostatin analog therapy, the novel tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor, telotristat, was initiated preoperatively. This combination resulted in normalization of preoperative urinary 5-HIAA levels. The patient successfully underwent tricuspid and pulmonic valve replacement without evidence of carcinoid crisis. This clinical case is the first published documenting the use of telotristat in the perioperative period in a patient with carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease and was associated with a good long-term outcome despite the high-risk nature of the case.

Learning points

  • Carcinoid crisis is a life-threatening complication of carcinoid syndrome, resulting in hemodynamic instability, bronchospasm, and arrhythmia.

  • Cardiac surgical patients with carcinoid syndrome present a unique challenge as they are subject to physiologic conditions and medications which can potentiate intraoperative carcinoid crisis.

  • Perioperative management of patients with carcinoid syndrome currently entails the use of prophylactic somatostatin analogs; however, these agents do not prevent carcinoid crisis in all cases.

  • Telotristat, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, shows promise as an adjunctive therapy to somatostatin analogs to reduce the risk of intraoperative carcinoid crisis.

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Sandra Martens Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Bruno Lapauw Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Summary

Mitotane is used for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. It is administered when the carcinoma is unresectable, metastasized, or at high-risk of recurrence after resection. In addition, mitotane is considered to have direct adrenolytic effects. Because of its narrow therapeutic–toxic range, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is warranted. In 2020, a left-sided adrenal gland tumor was found (5.8 cm) in a 38-year-old man. Considering the size of this lesion and inability to exclude an adrenocortical carcinoma on imaging, a laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination determined presence of an adrenocortical carcinoma (pT2N0M0 ENSAT stadium II; ki67 10–15%). There was no evidence for residual or metastatic disease but given the high risk of recurrence, adjuvant therapy with mitotane was initiated. During TDM, a sudden and spuriously high level of mitotane was observed but without signs or symptoms of toxicity. After exploration, it was found that this high concentration was completely due to uncontrolled hypertriglyceridemia. After correction thereof, mitotane levels were again in the therapeutic range. This observation underscores the importance of TDM sampling in a fasting state with concurrent control of prevalent or incident dyslipidemia.

Learning points

  • TDM of mitotane is advocated to achieve therapeutic levels while avoiding toxicity. For correct TDM, sampling should be done at least 12 h after last intake of mitotane.

  • Although sampling in fasting conditions in not explicitly mentioned in the guidelines, fasting state should be considered as elevated serum triglyceride levels might cause spuriously high mitotane levels.

  • In patients undergoing treatment with mitotane and presenting with too high or unexplained fluctuating mitotane levels without signs or symptoms of toxicity, hypertriglyceridemia as a possible cause should be investigated.

  • If dyslipidemia occurs in patients under mitotane treatment, other causes than mitotane (e.g. alcohol abuse and diabetes) should be considered and appropriate treatment should be initiated.

Open access
Rikako Nakajima Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Hiroto Idesawa Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Daisuke Sato Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Jun Ito Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Kei Ito Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Masanao Fujii Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Takamichi Suzuki Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Tomoaki Furuta Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Hitomi Kawai Department of Pathology, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Norio Takayashiki Department of Pathology, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Masanao Kurata Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Hiroaki Yagyu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

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Summary

Unawareness of postprandial hypoglycemia for 5 years was identified in a 66-year-old man at a local clinic. The patient was referred to our hospital because of this first awareness of hypoglycemia (i.e. lightheadedness and impaired consciousness) developing after lunch. In a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, the plasma glucose concentration was decreased to 32 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) at 150 min with relatively high concentrations of insulin (8.1 μU/mL), proinsulin (70.3 pmol/L), and C-peptide (4.63 ng/mL). In a prolonged fasting test, the plasma glucose concentration was decreased to 43 mg/dL (2.4 mmol/L) at 66 h with an insulin concentration of 1.4 μU/mL and a C-peptide concentration of 0.49 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed an 18 mm hyperenhancing tumor in the uncinate process of the pancreas. A selective arterial calcium stimulation test showed an elevated serum insulin concentration in the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was then diagnosed with insulinoma and received pancreaticoduodenectomy. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using the Dexcom G6 system showed unawareness of hypoglycemia mainly during the daytime before surgery. When the sensor glucose value was reduced to 55 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L), the Dexcom G6 system emitted an urgent low glucose alarm to the patient four times for 10 days. Two months after surgery, an overall increase in daily blood glucose concentrations and resolution of hypoglycemia were shown by CGM. We report a case of insulinoma with unawareness of postprandial hypoglycemia in the patient. The Dexcom G6 system was helpful for assessing preoperative hypoglycemia and for evaluating outcomes of treatment by surgery.

Learning points

  • Insulinoma occasionally leads to postprandial hypoglycemia.

  • The CGM system is useful for revealing the presence of unnoticed hypoglycemia and for evaluating treatment outcomes after surgical resection.

  • The Dexcom G6 system has an urgent low glucose alarm, making it particularly suitable for patients who are unaware of hypoglycemia.

Open access
Jose Paz-Ibarra Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
National Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru

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Jose Lu-Antara Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
Scientific Society of San Fernando, Lima, Peru

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Brenda-Erendida Uscamayta Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
Scientific Society of San Fernando, Lima, Peru

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Jhancy Martinez-Auris Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
Scientific Society of San Fernando, Lima, Peru

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Miriam Valencia-Rivera Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
Scientific Society of San Fernando, Lima, Peru

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Sofía Sáenz-Bustamante Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
National Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru

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Marialejandra Delgado-Rojas Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
National Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru

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Julia Salcedo-Vasquez Faculty of Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
National Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru

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Marcio Concepción-Zavaleta Division of Endocrinology. School of Medicine. Norbert Wiener University. Lima, Peru

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Summary

Doege–Potter syndromeis a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia due to a solitary fibrous tumor, which produces insulin-like growth factor II. In this report, we present the case of a 67-year-old male with recurrent and refractory hypoglycemia due to DPS successfully treated with imatinib. He initially presented with neuroglycopenic symptoms and dyspnea secondary to a giant tumor in the left hemithorax, which was totally resected. During follow-up, 7 years later, he presented with thoracoabdominal tumor recurrence associated with severe hypoglycemia and underwent subtotal tumor resection, with a subsequent improvement of symptoms. The following year, he had a recurrence of his intra-abdominal tumor, which was unresectable, associated with severe hypoglycemia refractory to dextrose infusion and corticosteroids, thus receiving imatinib with a favorable response. The clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, progression of the disease, and response to treatment with imatinib in the management of a patient with large, recurrent, and unresectable mesenchymal tumors with insulin-like growth factor-2 secretion causing hypoglycemiahighlight the importance of this case report.

Learning points

  • Doege–Potter syndrome (DPS) is a rare cause of tumoral hypoglycemia of non-pancreatic origin.

  • Some malignant or benignant neoplasms have ectopic secretion of insulin-like growth factor-2.

  • Total surgical removal is the principal treatment in patients with DPS.

  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors management in DPS may contribute to improved tumor control in patients with unresectable tumors and severe hypoglycemia.

Open access
Ekaterina Kim Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Bondarenko Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Anna Eremkina Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Petr Nikiforovich Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Natalia Mokrysheva Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Summary

A 59-year-old male presented with an accidental thyroid mass in 2022. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a nodule 5.2 × 4.9 × 2.8 cm (EU-TIRADS 4) in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Taking into account the results of the fine needle aspiration biopsy (Bethesda V), intrathyroid localization, and absence of clinical symptoms, a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland was suspected. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy using fluorescence angiography with indocyanine green, and two pairs of intact parathyroid glands were visualized in typical localization. Unexpected histological and immunohistochemistry examinations revealed parathyroid carcinoma. Due to the asymptomatic course of the disease and atypical localization of parathyroid tumor, primary hyperparathyroidism was not suspected before the surgery. The diagnosis of asymptomatic intrathyroid parathyroid cancer is a serious diagnostic challenge for a wide range of specialists.

Learning points

  • Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease that may be asymptomatic.

  • Intrathyroidal localization of parathyroid carcinoma is casuistic and challenging for diagnosis, and the treatment strategy is not well defined.

  • Preoperative parathyroid hormone and serum calcium testing are recommended for patients with solid thyroid nodules (Bethesda IV–V).

Open access
Paula Condé Lamparelli Elias Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Marcelo Volpon Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Giovana de Gobbi Azevedo Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Helio Machado Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Gabriel Henrique Marques Gonçalves Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Antonio Carlos Santos Department of Radiology, Hematology and Oncology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Livia M Mermejo Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Margaret de Castro Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Ayrton C Moreira Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

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Summary

Postoperative (PO) complications after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) are rare when performed in pituitary referral centers. Partial hypopituitarism is more frequent and somewhat expected. Meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and visual deficits are unusual. Cerebrovascular complications, including cerebral vasospasm are rare, usually under-appreciated and not mentioned to the patient prior to the surgery. This is a report of a 51-year-old male with a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma presenting with partial hypopituitarism and visual field loss. The patient was submitted to an uneventful TSS. On the first PO day, he developed a left palpebral ptosis with unequal pupils and impaired consciousness (12 points on Glasgow Coma Scale). CT scan revealed a perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) grade 1 according to the modified Fisher scale. High-dose dexamethasone (16 mg/day) was initiated and the patient became more alert (Glasgow 14). On the fifth PO day, due to progression of the neurological deficits (left III, IV, and VI cranial nerves palsy, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, right dysmetria, and dysarthria), a magnetic resonance angiography was obtained and revealed a recent mesencephalic infarct without evident vasospasm. Nevertheless, nimodipine 60 mg 4/4 h was initiated. No improvement was seen after 3 days of treatment. The patient was discharged and put on rehabilitation, returning to normal gait and balance after 7 months. This, therefore, is a case of an unexpected mesencephalic infarct probably due to vasospasm induced by minor SAH. Although exceptionally rare, informing the patient about this event prior to TSS is important due to its significant neurological impact. More data are needed considering preventive treatment with nimodipine as soon as SAH is detected after TSS and whether it would improve neurological outcomes.

Learning points

  • Whenever neurological deficits arise after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), systemic infection, meningitis, electrolyte imbalance, and evident hemorrhage must be promptly investigated.

  • Although rare, cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after TSS is associated with high morbidity and high mortality rates.

  • Vigilance for vasospasm is necessary for patients undergoing TSS for pituitary adenoma, especially those with significant suprasellar extension.

  • Informing this event to the patient prior to TSS is essential due to its significant morbidity and mortality.

  • Post-TSS subarachnoid hemorrhage and hemiparesis may be important clues indicating CVS and infarction.

  • There is limited evidence in the literature regarding post-TSS CVS surveillance and treatment strategies which could have an impact on clinical decisions.

Open access
L Aliberti Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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I Gagliardi Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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M Pontrelli Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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M C Zatelli Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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M R Ambrosio Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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Summary

Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is due to an overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by mesenchymal tumours, causing hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia and muscle weakness. TIO is usually cured by tumour resection, but neoplasms may be unidentifiable and unresectable or the patient may refuse surgery. In these cases, medical treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol is mandatory, but it is not fully effective and it is associated with low compliance. Burosumab, a human MAB against FGF23 employed to treat X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), has recently been approved for TIO in the USA. Maximum burosumab dose in XLH is 90 mg administered for 2 weeks; there are no data on clinical efficacy and safety of this dose in TIO. We reported the case of a 73 years old male with multiple non-traumatic fractures, low bone mineral density, pain and reduced independence of activities of daily living. Biochemical evaluation showed hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and normal albumin-corrected total calcium and parathyroid hormone. Tubular phosphate reabsorption was low (80%), whereas C-terminal tail of FGF23 (cFGF23) was elevated. A 68Ga-DOTATOC PET was performed, identifying a lesion in the first left rib. The patient refused surgery; therefore, burosumab therapy was started. After 18 months of treatment (maximum dose: 60 mg administered for 2 weeks), plasma phosphate normalized and ALP levels improved (138 U/L). Patient clinical symptoms as well as pain severity and fatigue improved. Neither adverse events nor tumour progression was reported during follow-up except for a painless fracture of the second right rib.

Learning points

  • Our case shows efficacy and safety of burosumab treatment administered every 2 weeks in a tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) patient.

  • After 18 months of treatment at a maximum dose of 60 mg every 2 weeks, we found plasma phosphate normalization and ALP reduction as well as improvement in clinical symptoms and fatigue.

  • Neither adverse events nor tumour progression was reported during follow-up, except for a painless fracture of the second right rib.

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