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Jenny S W Yun Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Chris McCormack Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Michelle Goh Department of Surgical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Cherie Chiang Department of Internal Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

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Summary

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a common dermatosis associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. However, AN has been rarely reported in patients with insulinoma, a state of persistent hyperinsulinemia. We present a case of metastatic insulinoma, in whom AN manifested after the first cycle of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with metastatic insulinoma after 5 months of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Within 1 month post PRRT, the patient became euglycemic but developed a pigmented, pruritic rash which was confirmed on biopsy as AN. We discuss the rare manifestation of AN in subjects with insulinoma, the role of insulin in the pathogenesis of AN, malignant AN in non-insulin-secreting malignancies and association with other insulin-resistant endocrinopathies such as acromegaly.

Learning points

  • Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a common dermatosis which is typically asymptomatic and associated with the hyperinsulinemic state.

  • Malignant AN can rapidly spread, cause pruritus and affect mucosa and the oral cavity.

  • AN is extremely rare in patients with insulinoma despite marked hyperinsulinemia.

  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy might have triggered TGF-α secretion in this subject which led to malignant AN.

  • Rapid spread or unusual distribution of pruritic AN warrants further investigation to exclude underlying malignancy.

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Pranav Gupta Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Karen Loechner Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Connecticut Childrens Medical Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA

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Briana C Patterson Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Eric Felner Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Summary

Insulinomas are a rare cause of persistent hypoglycemia in a previously healthy child. In addition to symptoms of hypoglycemia, individuals with insulinomas usually present with a history of incessant caloric intake and weight gain due to a constant need to counter hypoglycemia. In addition to an extensive review of the literature, we report the first case of an insulinoma coexisting with reduced appetite secondary to anorexia nervosa in an adolescent female.

Learning points

  • Eliciting a detailed family history is important in hypoglycemia cases.

  • Obtaining a thorough dietary intake, weight history, and menstrual cycles (in females) and considering a psychiatric consultation for an eating disorder when indicated.

  • Although rare in the pediatric population, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome should be considered in the evaluation of children and adolescents with hypoglycemia who also have a family history of pituitary, pancreatic, and/or parathyroid endocrinopathies.

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Shweta Birla Laboratory of Cyto-Molecular Genetics, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Viveka P Jyotsna Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Rajiv Singla Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Madhavi Tripathi Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Arundhati Sharma Laboratory of Cyto-Molecular Genetics, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Summary

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by tumors in endocrine and/or non endocrine organs due to mutations in MEN1 encoding a nuclear scaffold protein‘menin’ involved in regulation of different cellular activities. We report a novel 14 bp MEN1 deletion mutation in a 35-year-old female with history of recurrent epigastric pain, vomiting, loose stools and weight loss. On evaluation she was diagnosed to have multifocal gastro-duodenal gastrinoma with paraduodenal lymph nodes and solitary liver metastasis. She was also found to have primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral inferior parathyroid adenoma. Pancreatico-duodenectomy with truncalvagotomy was performed. Four months later, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of segment 4 of the liver was done followed by three and a half parathyroidectomy. MEN1 screening was carried out for the patient and her family members. MEN-1 sequencing in the patient revealed a heterozygous 14 bp exon 8 deletion. Evaluation for pathogenicity and protein structure prediction showed that the mutation led to a frameshift thereby causing premature termination resulting in a truncated protein. To conclude, a novel pathogenic MEN1 deletion mutation affecting its function was identified in a patient with hyperparathyroidism and gastrinoma. The report highlights the clinical consequences of the novel mutation and its impact on the structure and function of the protein. It also provides evidence for co-existence of pancreatic and duodenal gastrinomas in MEN1 syndrome. MEN1 testing provides important clues regarding etiology and therefore should be essentially undertaken in asymptomatic first degree relatives who could be potential carriers of the disease.

Learning points

  • Identification of a novel pathogenic MEN1 deletion mutation.

  • MEN1 mutation screening in patients with pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic tumors, and their first degree relatives gives important clues about the etiology.

  • Pancreatic and duodenal gastrinomas may co-exist simultaneously in MEN1 syndrome.

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Pinaki Dutta Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Anuradha Aggarwal Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Yashpal Gogate Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Uma Nahar Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Viral N Shah Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Mandeep Singla Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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N Khandelwal Radiodiagnosis, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Anil Bhansali Departments of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India

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Summary

We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in five cases of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), diagnosed at a tertiary care institute over a period of 15 years. The clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings of these patients along with diagnostic utility of IGF2:IGF1 ratio are discussed. The mean age of presentation was 52 years, with a male predominance (3:2). Three patients presented with recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycemia and it was detected in other two patients during hospitalization. Two patients had acromegaloid features that regressed following treatment. One patient had hypokalemia. Low levels of insulin, C-peptide, GH, and IGF1 were invariably found in all. The IGF2 level was elevated in only one patient; however, IGF2:IGF1 ratio was more than 10 in four of the five patients. The mean tumor size was 16.4 cm and mean weight was 3.6 kg. Four patients had mesenchymal tumors and one had epithelial tumor. NICTH is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low IGF1 and IGF2:IGF1 ratio more than 10 is suggestive of this entity.

Learning points

  • NICTH should be considered in patients presenting with tumor of mesenchymal origin and hypoglycemia.

  • Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low IGF1 is a strong biochemical evidence of NICTH.

  • IGF2:IGF1 ratio of more than 10 is a complementary investigation in the absence of an assay facility for IGF2.

Open access