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Open access

Andrea del Toro-Diez, Ernesto Solá-Sánchez, and Michelle Mangual-García


Primary hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders with widely available treatment. A minority of patients remain with uncontrolled hypothyroidism despite therapy. The objective of this case series was to demonstrate that medication non-adherence, rather than malabsorption, should be sought as the most common cause of unsuppressed TSH levels in patients receiving treatment for this condition. Non-adherence is often considered as a diagnosis of exclusion. Nonetheless, a diagnosis of malabsorption requires a more extensive workup, including imaging and invasive procedures, which increase healthcare costs and burden to the patient. The findings of this study allow for a cost-effective approach to uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

Learning points

  • Medication non-adherence is a common cause of insuppressible TSH levels.

  • Once weekly levothyroxine is an alternative approach to non-compliant patients.

  • Assessing compliance is more cost-effective and less burdensome than testing for malabsorption.

Open access

Nicolás Cruz-Dardíz, Nadyeschka Rivera-Santana, Marina Torres-Torres, Héctor Cintrón-Colón, Shayanne Lajud, Ernesto Solá-Sánchez, Michelle Mangual-García, and Alex González-Bóssolo


Lingual thyroid (LT) gland is the most common type of ectopic thyroid tissue, but it is an extremely rare presentation. We present a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic female patient complaining of dysphonia and dysphagia. As part of the evaluation, fiber optic flexible indirect laryngoscopy (FIL) was performed which revealed a mass at the base of the tongue. The morphological examination was highly suspicious for ectopic thyroid tissue and the diagnosis was confirmed with neck ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy. Although the patient presented subclinical hypothyroidism, levothyroxine therapy was initiated with a favorable response which included resolution of symptoms and mass size reduction. Our case portrays how thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) may lead to a reduction in the size of the ectopic tissue and improvement of symptoms, thus avoiding the need for surgical intervention which could result in profound hypothyroidism severely affecting the patients’ quality of life.

Learning points:

  • Benign LT and malignant LT are indistinguishable clinically and radiographically for which histopathology is recommended.

  • THRT, radioactive iodine 131 (RAI) therapy, and surgical excision are potential management options for LT.

  • THRT may lead to size reduction of the ectopic tissue and resolution of symptoms avoiding surgical intervention.

Open access

Ernesto Solá, Carmen Rivera, Michelle Mangual, José Martinez, Kelvin Rivera, and Ricardo Fernandez


Diabetes mellitus was identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB) infection, and relapse after therapy. The risk of acquiring TB is described as comparable to that of HIV population. The fact that diabetics are 3× times more prone to develop pulmonary TB than nondiabetics cannot be overlooked. With DM recognized as global epidemic, and TB affecting one-third of the world population, physicians must remain vigilant. We present a 45-year-old woman born in Dominican Republic (DR), with 10-year history of T2DM treated with metformin, arrived to our Urgency Room complaining of dry cough for the past 3months. Interview unveiled unintentional 15lbs weight loss, night sweats, occasional unquantified fever, and general malaise but denied bloody sputum. She traveled to DR 2years before, with no known ill exposure. Physical examination showed a thin body habitus, otherwise well appearing woman with stable vital signs, presenting solely right middle lung field ronchi. LDH, ESR, hsCRP and Hg A1C were elevated. Imaging revealed a right middle lobe cavitation. Sputum for AFB disclosed active pulmonary TB. Our case portrays that the consideration of TB as differential diagnosis in diabetics should be exercised with the same strength, as it is undertaken during the evaluation of HIV patients with lung cavitation. Inability to recognize TB will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.

Learning points

  • Diabetes mellitus should be considered an important risk factor for the reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  • High clinical suspicious should be taken into consideration as radiological findings for pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with diabetes mellitus may be atypical, involving middle and lower lobes.

  • Inability to recognize pulmonary tuberculosis will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.