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Open access

Jose León Mengíbar, Ismael Capel, Teresa Bonfill, Isabel Mazarico, Laia Casamitjana Espuña, Assumpta Caixàs and Mercedes Rigla

Summary

Durvalumab, a human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) with the PD-1 and CD80 (B7.1) molecules, is increasingly used in advanced neoplasias. Durvalumab use is associated with increased immune-related adverse events. We report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to our emergency room with hyperglycaemia after receiving durvalumab for urothelial high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. On presentation, he had polyuria, polyphagia, nausea and vomiting, and laboratory test revealed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Other than durvalumab, no precipitating factors were identified. Pre-durvalumab blood glucose was normal. The patient responded to treatment with intravenous fluids, insulin and electrolyte replacement. Simultaneously, he presented a thyroid hormone pattern that evolved in 10 weeks from subclinical hyperthyroidism (initially attributed to iodinated contrast used in a previous computerised tomography) to overt hyperthyroidism and then to severe primary hypothyroidism (TSH: 34.40 µU/mL, free thyroxine (FT4): <0.23 ng/dL and free tri-iodothyronine (FT3): 0.57 pg/mL). Replacement therapy with levothyroxine was initiated. Finally, he was tested positive for anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies (Abs) and diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and silent thyroiditis caused by durvalumab. When durvalumab was stopped, he maintained the treatment of multiple daily insulin doses and levothyroxine. Clinicians need to be alerted about the development of endocrinopathies, such as DM, DKA and primary hypothyroidism in the patients receiving durvalumab.

Learning points:

  • Patients treated with anti-PD-L1 should be screened for the most common immune-related adverse events (irAEs).

  • Glucose levels and thyroid function should be monitored before and during the treatment.

  • Durvalumab is mainly associated with thyroid and endocrine pancreas dysfunction.

  • In the patients with significant autoimmune background, risk–benefit balance of antineoplastic immunotherapy should be accurately assessed.

Open access

Daphne Yau, Maria Salomon-Estebanez, Amish Chinoy, John Grainger, Ross J Craigie, Raja Padidela, Mars Skae, Mark J Dunne, Philip G Murray and Indraneel Banerjee

Summary

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is an important cause of severe hypoglycaemia in infancy. To correct hypoglycaemia, high concentrations of dextrose are often required through a central venous catheter (CVC) with consequent risk of thrombosis. We describe a series of six cases of CHI due to varying aetiologies from our centre requiring CVC for the management of hypoglycaemia, who developed thrombosis in association with CVC. We subsequently analysed the incidence and risk factors for CVC-associated thrombosis, as well as the outcomes of enoxaparin prophylaxis. The six cases occurred over a 3-year period; we identified an additional 27 patients with CHI who required CVC insertion during this period (n = 33 total), and a separate cohort of patients with CHI and CVC who received enoxaparin prophylaxis (n = 7). The incidence of CVC-associated thrombosis was 18% (6/33) over the 3 years, a rate of 4.2 thromboses/1000 CVC days. There was no difference in the frequency of genetic mutations or focal CHI in those that developed thromboses. However, compound heterozygous/homozygous potassium ATP channel mutations correlated with thrombosis (R 2 = 0.40, P = 0.001). No difference was observed in CVC duration, high concentration dextrose or glucagon infused through the CVC. In patients receiving enoxaparin prophylaxis, none developed thrombosis or bleeding complications. The characteristics of these patients did not differ significantly from those with thrombosis not on prophylaxis. We therefore conclude that CVC-associated thrombosis can occur in a significant proportion (18%) of patients with CHI, particularly in severe CHI, for which anticoagulant prophylaxis may be indicated.

Learning points:

  • CVC insertion is one of the most significant risk factors for thrombosis in the paediatric population.

  • Risk factors for CVC-associated thrombosis include increased duration of CVC placement, malpositioning and infusion of blood products.

  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate CVC-associated thrombosis in patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI).

  • The incidence of CVC-associated thrombosis development is significant (18%) in CHI patients and higher compared to other neonates with CVC. CHI severity may be a risk factor for thrombosis development.

  • Although effective prophylaxis for CVC-associated thrombosis in infancy is yet to be established, our preliminary experience suggests the safety and efficacy of enoxoaparin prophylaxis in this population and requires on-going evaluation.

Open access

Teresa M Canteros, Valeria De Miguel and Patricia Fainstein-Day

Summary

Severe Cushing syndrome (SCS) is considered an emergency that requires immediate treatment to lower serum cortisol levels. Fluconazole may be considered an alternative treatment in Cushing syndrome when ketoconazole is not tolerated or unavailable. We report a 39-year-old woman with a history of partial pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a periampullary neuroendocrine tumor with locoregional extension. Three years after surgery, she developed liver metastases and was started on 120 mg of lanreotide/month, despite which, liver metastases progressed in the following 6 months. The patient showed extreme fatigue, muscle weakness, delirium, moon face, hirsutism and severe proximal weakness. Laboratory tests showed anemia, hyperglycemia and severe hypokalemia. 24-h urinary free cortisol: 2152 nmol/day (reference range (RR): <276), morning serum cortisol 4883.4 nmol/L (RR: 138–690), ACTH 127.3 pmol/L (RR: 2.2–10). She was diagnosed with ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). On admission, she presented with acute upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and hemodynamic instability. Intravenous fluconazole 400 mg/day was started. After 48 h, her mental state improved and morning cortisol decreased by 25%. The dose was titrated to 600 mg/day which resulted in a 55% decrease in cortisol levels in 1 week, but then had to be decreased to 400 mg/day because transaminase levels increased over 3 times the upper normal level. After 18 days of treatment, hemodynamic stability, lower cortisol levels and better overall clinical status enabled successful bilateral adrenalectomy. This case report shows that intravenous fluconazole effectively decreased cortisol levels in SCS due to EAS.

Learning points:

  • Severe Cushing syndrome can be effectively treated with fluconazole to achieve a significant improvement of hypercortisolism prior to bilateral adrenalectomy.

  • Intravenous fluconazole is an alternative treatment when ketoconazole is not tolerated and etomidate is not available.

  • Fluconazole is well tolerated with mild side effects. Hepatotoxicity is usually mild and resolves after drug discontinuation.

Open access

A Chinoy, N B Wright, M Bone and R Padidela

Summary

Hypokalaemia at presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis is uncommon as insulin deficiency and metabolic acidosis shifts potassium extracellularly. However, hypokalaemia is a recognised complication of the management of diabetic ketoacidosis as insulin administration and correction of metabolic acidosis shifts potassium intracellularly. We describe the case of a 9-year-old girl with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting in diabetic ketoacidosis, with severe hypokalaemia at presentation due to severe and prolonged emesis. After commencing management for her diabetic ketoacidosis, her serum sodium and osmolality increased rapidly. However, despite maximal potassium concentrations running through peripheral access, and multiple intravenous potassium ‘corrections’, her hypokalaemia persisted. Seventy two hours after presentation, she became drowsy and confused, with imaging demonstrating central pontine myelinolysis – a rare entity seldom seen in diabetic ketoacidosis management in children despite rapid shifts in serum sodium and osmolality. We review the literature associating central pontine myelinolysis with hypokalaemia and hypothesise as to how the hypokalaemia may have contributed to the development of central pontine myelinolysis. We also recommend an approach to the management of a child in diabetic ketoacidosis with hypokalaemia at presentation.

Learning points:

  • Hypokalaemia is a recognised complication of treatment of paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis that should be aggressively managed to prevent acute complications.

  • Central pontine myelinolysis is rare in children, and usually observed in the presence of rapid correction of hyponatraemia. However, there is observational evidence of an association between hypokalaemia and central pontine myelinolysis, potentially by priming the endothelial cell membrane to injury by lesser fluctuations in osmotic pressure.

  • Consider central pontine myelinolysis as a complication of the management of paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis in the presence of relevant symptoms with profound hypokalaemia and/or fluctuations in serum sodium levels.

  • We have suggested an approach to the management strategies of hypokalaemia in paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis which includes oral potassium supplements if tolerated, minimising the duration and the rate of insulin infusion and increasing the concentration of potassium intravenously (via central line if necessary).

Open access

Ved Bhushan Arya, Jennifer Kalitsi, Ann Hickey, Sarah E Flanagan and Ritika R Kapoor

Summary

Diazoxide is the first-line treatment for patients with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH). Approximately 50% of patients with HH are diazoxide resistant. However, marked diazoxide sensitivity resulting in severe hyperglycaemia is extremely uncommon and not reported previously in the context of HH due to HNF4A mutation. We report a novel observation of exceptional diazoxide sensitivity in a patient with HH due to HNF4A mutation. A female infant presented with severe persistent neonatal hypoglycaemia and was diagnosed with HH. Standard doses of diazoxide (5 mg/kg/day) resulted in marked hyperglycaemia (maximum blood glucose 21.6 mmol/L) necessitating discontinuation of diazoxide. Lower dose of diazoxide (1.5 mg/kg/day) successfully controlled HH in the proband, which was subsequently confirmed to be due to a novel HNF4A mutation. At 3 years of age, the patient maintains age appropriate fasting tolerance on low dose diazoxide (1.8 mg/kg/day) and has normal development. Diagnosis in proband’s mother and maternal aunt, both of whom carried HNF4A mutation and had been diagnosed with presumed type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively, was revised to maturity-onset diabetes of young (MODY). Proband’s 5-year-old maternal cousin, also carrier of HNF4A mutation, had transient neonatal hypoglycaemia. To conclude, patients with HH due to HNF4A mutation may require lower diazoxide than other group of patients with HH. Educating the families about the risk of marked hyperglycaemia with diazoxide is essential. The clinical phenotype of HNF4A mutation can be extremely variable.

Learning points:

  • Awareness of risk of severe hyperglycaemia with diazoxide is important and patients/families should be accordingly educated.

  • Some patients with HH due to HNF4A mutations may require lower than standard doses of diazoxide.

  • The clinical phenotype of HNF4A mutation can be extremely variable.

Open access

Yang Timothy Du, Lynette Moore, Nicola K Poplawski and Sunita M C De Sousa

Summary

A 26-year-old man presented with a combination of permanent neonatal diabetes due to pancreatic aplasia, complex congenital heart disease, central hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency, structural renal abnormalities with proteinuria, umbilical hernia, neurocognitive impairment and dysmorphic features. His older brother had diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic hypoplasia, complex congenital heart disease, hypospadias and umbilical hernia. Their father had an atrial septal defect, umbilical hernia and diabetes mellitus diagnosed incidentally in adulthood on employment screening. The proband’s paternal grandmother had a congenital heart defect. Genetic testing of the proband revealed a novel heterozygous missense variant (Chr18:g.19761441T>C, c.1330T>C, p.Cys444Arg) in exon 4 of GATA6, which is class 5 (pathogenic) using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines and is likely to account for his multisystem disorder. The same variant was detected in his brother and father, but not his paternal grandmother. This novel variant of GATA6 likely occurred de novo in the father with autosomal dominant inheritance in the proband and his brother. The case is exceptional as very few families with monogenic diabetes due to GATA6 mutations have been reported to date and we describe a new link between GATA6 and renal pathology.

Learning points:

  • Monogenic diabetes should be suspected in patients presenting with syndromic features, multisystem congenital disease, neonatal-onset diabetes and/or a suggestive family history.

  • Recognition and identification of genetic diabetes may improve patient understanding and empowerment and allow for better tailored management.

  • Identification of a genetic disorder may have important implications for family planning.

Open access

Michelle Maher, Mohammed Faraz Rafey, Helena Griffin, Katie Cunningham and Francis M Finucane

Summary

A 45-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (HbA1c 87 mmol/mol) despite 100 units of insulin per day and severe obesity (BMI 40.2 kg/m2) was referred for bariatric intervention. He declined bariatric surgery or GLP1 agonist therapy. Initially, his glycaemic control improved with dietary modification and better adherence to insulin therapy, but he gained weight. We started a low-energy liquid diet, with 2.2 L of semi-skimmed milk (equivalent to 1012 kcal) per day for 8 weeks (along with micronutrient, salt and fibre supplementation) followed by 16 weeks of phased reintroduction of a normal diet. His insulin was stopped within a week of starting this programme, and over 6 months, he lost 20.6 kg and his HbA1c normalised. However, 1 year later, despite further weight loss, his HbA1c deteriorated dramatically, requiring introduction of linagliptin and canagliflozin, with good response. Five years after initial presentation, his BMI remains elevated but improved at 35.5 kg/m2 and his glycaemic control is excellent with a HbA1c of 50 mmol/mol and he is off insulin therapy. Whether semi-skimmed milk is a safe, effective substrate for carefully selected patients with severe obesity complicated by T2DM remains to be determined. Such patients would need frequent monitoring by an experienced multidisciplinary team.

Learning points:

  • Meal replacement programmes are an emerging therapeutic strategy to allow severely obese type 2 diabetes patients to achieve clinically impactful weight loss.

  • Using semi-skimmed milk as a meal replacement substrate might be less costly than commercially available programmes, but is likely to require intensive multidisciplinary bariatric clinical follow-up.

  • For severely obese adults with poor diabetes control who decline bariatric surgery or GLP1 agonist therapy, a milk-based meal replacement programme may be an option.

  • Milk-based meal replacement in patients with insulin requiring type 2 diabetes causes rapid and profound reductions in insulin requirements, so rigorous monitoring of glucose levels by patients and their clinicians is necessary.

  • In carefully selected and adequately monitored patients, the response to oral antidiabetic medications may help to differentiate between absolute and relative insulin deficiency.

Open access

Osamah A Hakami, Julia Ioana, Shahzad Ahmad, Tommy Kyaw Tun, Seamus Sreenan and John H McDermott

Summary

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised cancer therapy and improved outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that acts as a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1(PDCD1)) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma and other solid tumours. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including endocrinopathies have been well described with this and other PD-1 inhibitors. While hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and less commonly hypophysitis, are the most common endocrinopathies occurring in patients treated with pembrolizumab, the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was low in clinical trials. We report a case of pembrolizumab-induced primary hypothyroidism and T1DM presenting with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A 52-year-old male patient was treated with pembrolizumab for metastatic melanoma. He presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of nausea and vomiting 2 weeks after his seventh dose of pembrolizumab, having complained of polyuria and polydipsia for 2 months before presentation. He had been diagnosed with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody-negative hypothyroidism, requiring thyroxine replacement, shortly after his fifth dose. Testing revealed a severe DKA (pH: 6.99, glucose: 38.6 mmol/L, capillary ketones: 4.9 and anion gap: 34.7). He was treated in the intensive care unit as per the institutional protocol, and subsequently transitioned to subcutaneous basal-bolus insulin. After his diabetes and thyroid stabilised, pembrolizumab was recommenced to treat his advanced melanoma given his excellent response. This case highlights the importance of blood glucose monitoring as an integral part of cancer treatment protocols composed of pembrolizumab and other ICIs.

Learning points:

  • The incidence of T1DM with pembrolizumab treatment is being increasingly recognised and reported, and DKA is a common initial presentation.

  • Physicians should counsel patients about this potential irAE and educate them about the symptoms of hyperglycaemia and DKA.

  • The ESMO guidelines recommend regular monitoring of blood glucose in patients treated with ICIs, a recommendation needs to be incorporated into cancer treatment protocols for pembrolizumab and other ICIs in order to detect hyperglycaemia early and prevent DKA.

Open access

Michal Barabas, Isabel Huang-Doran, Debbie Pitfield, Hazel Philips, Manoj Goonewardene, Ruth T Casey and Benjamin G Challis

Summary

A 67-year-old woman presented with a generalised rash associated with weight loss and resting tachycardia. She had a recent diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated levels of circulating glucagon and chromogranin B. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a pancreatic lesion and liver metastases, which were octreotide-avid. Biopsy of the liver lesion confirmed a diagnosis of well-differentiated grade 2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour, consistent with metastatic glucagonoma. Serial echocardiography commenced 4 years before this diagnosis demonstrated a progressive left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction in the absence of ischaemia, suggestive of glucagonoma-associated dilated cardiomyopathy. Given the severity of the cardiac impairment, surgical management was considered inappropriate and somatostatin analogue therapy was initiated, affecting clinical and biochemical improvement. Serial cross-sectional imaging demonstrated stable disease 2 years after diagnosis. Left ventricular dysfunction persisted, however, despite somatostatin analogue therapy and optimal medical management of cardiac failure. In contrast to previous reports, the case we describe demonstrates that chronic hyperglucagonaemia may lead to irreversible left ventricular compromise. Management of glucagonoma therefore requires careful and serial evaluation of cardiac status.

Learning points:

  • In rare cases, glucagonoma may present with cardiac failure as the dominant feature. Significant cardiac impairment may occur in the absence of other features of glucagonoma syndrome due to subclinical chronic hyperglucagonaemia.

  • A diagnosis of glucagonoma should be considered in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, particularly those with other features of glucagonoma syndrome.

  • Cardiac impairment due to glucagonoma may not respond to somatostatin analogue therapy, even in the context of biochemical improvement.

  • All patients with a new diagnosis of glucagonoma should be assessed clinically for evidence of cardiac failure and, if present, a baseline transthoracic echocardiogram should be performed. In the presence of cardiac impairment these patients should be managed by an experienced cardiologist.

Open access

Suguru Watanabe, Jun Kido, Mika Ogata, Kimitoshi Nakamura and Tomoyuki Mizukami

Summary

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are the most severe acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). HHS is characterized by severe hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis and acidosis. A 14-year-old Japanese boy presented at the emergency room with lethargy, polyuria and polydipsia. He belonged to a baseball club team and habitually drank sugar-rich beverages daily. Three weeks earlier, he suffered from lassitude and developed polyuria and polydipsia 1 week later. He had been drinking more sugar-rich isotonic sports drinks (approximately 1000–1500 mL/day) than usual (approximately 500 mL/day). He presented with HHS (hyperglycemia (1010 mg/dL, HbA1c 12.3%) and mild hyperosmolality (313 mOsm/kg)) without acidosis (pH 7.360), severe ketosis (589 μmol/L) and ketonuria. He presented HHS in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with elevated glutamate decarboxylase antibody and islet antigen 2 antibody. Consuming beverages with high sugar concentrations caused hyperglycemia and further exacerbates thirst, resulting in further beverage consumption. Although he recovered from HHS following intensive transfusion and insulin treatment, he was significantly sensitive to insulin therapy. Even the appropriate amount of insulin may result in dramatically decreasing blood sugar levels in patients with T1DM. We should therefore suspect T1DM in patients with HHS but not those with obesity. Moreover, age, clinical history and body type are helpful for identifying T1DM and HHS. Specifically, drinking an excess of beverages rich in sugars represents a risk of HHS in juvenile/adolescent T1DM patients.

Learning points:

  • Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is characterized by severe hyperglycemia and hyperosmolality without significant ketosis and acidosis.

  • The discrimination between HHS of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in initial presentation is difficult.

  • Pediatrician should suspect T1DM in patients with HHS but not obesity.

  • Age, clinical history and body type are helpful for identifying T1DM and HHS.

  • Children with T1DM are very sensitive to insulin treatment, and even appropriate amount of insulin may result in dramatically decreasing blood sugar levels.