A 20-year-old South Asian male presented with polyuria, polydipsia, HbA1c 81 mmol/mol, BMI 28.8 and family history of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. As autoantibody testing was negative and c-peptide level demonstrated significant endogenous insulin secretion, type 1 diabetes was excluded. Given his age and family history, the differential diagnosis included maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a rare form of diabetes caused by a single-gene variant. A high probability of MODY was calculated and he was subsequently referred for genetic testing. Although a useful tool, the pre-test probability calculator for MODY is only validated in White Europeans. A heterogenous variant of unknown clinical significance of the NEUROD1 gene was detected, leading to gliclazide use with poor response. The patient responded well to metformin. Type 2 diabetes was considered the most likely diagnosis. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges in young patients of Asian ethnicity and the importance of interpreting genetic results of unknown significance within the clinical context. Ethnicity-specific BMI thresholds should be used when classifying patients as overweight or obese.
Variants of unknown significance detected by genetic sequencing should be interpreted within the context of the patient’s other clinical parameters.
It is important to use ethnicity-specific BMI thresholds for obesity.
Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus at younger ages is becoming increasingly common.
The pre-test probability calculator for MODY is only validated in White Europeans; although a useful guide, results should be interpreted with caution in patients of other ethnicities.
Per Medbøe ThorsbyInstitute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Norway
We present a young woman with treatment resistant insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) with a protracted course. Her serum insulin level was 6945 pmol/l (<160), C-peptide 4042 pmol/L (<1480), anti-insulin antibodies 5305 U/mL (<0.4) were monoclonal IgG kappa. After 12 h of fasting, her blood glucose fell to 1.2 mmol/L. Post-meal blood glucose peaked at 12.2 mmol/L with reactive hypoglycaemia below 2 mmol/L. Frequent meals and continuous blood glucose monitoring were helpful, but further treatments advocated in the literature with prednisolone, rituximab, plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and ciclosporin were without beneficial effect.
Based on this case and a review of the literature, we propose that IAS is not one but two different diseases with different therapeutic strategies. The first disease, polyclonal IAS, predominates in Asia and is characterized by polyclonal anti-insulin antibodies, association with certain HLA genotypes and other autoimmune conditions, medications and viral infections possibly triggering the disease, a possible female predominance among young patients and a tendency towards spontaneous remission. The other disease, monoclonal IAS, predominates in Caucasians. Typical features are monoclonal anti-insulin antibodies, only weak HLA association, no drug predisposition, no sex difference, rare remission and conventional therapy often being without any clinical effect. We suggest that monoclonal IAS with IgG or IgA anti-insulin antibodies should receive therapy targeting plasma cells rather than lymphocytes.
IAS may be considered as two separate diseases, polyclonal and monoclonal.
The presence of either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies should determine the choice of treatment for IAS.
In polyclonal IAS, discontinuation of a triggering medication and treatment of triggering conditions should be the backbone of therapy.
Monoclonal IAS should receive treatment targeting plasma cells.
There is a scarcity of literature relating to post-bariatric hypoglycaemia (PBH) in pregnancy. Recurrent hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia can have significant consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. We describe a case of a young pregnant woman who was diagnosed with symptomatic PBH in the second trimester of pregnancy using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) 3 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Instigating a low glycaemic index and complex carbohydrate diet significantly improved the patient’s glycaemic excursions. Given that this condition is likely underdiagnosed as a complication of RYGB surgery, a greater awareness of this complication is needed. Patients should be adequately consented pre-operatively for this relatively frequent late surgical complication to enable patients to identify symptoms of this condition at an early stage and seek medical treatment.
PBH is an important diagnosis in patients post-RYGB surgery, particularly in women of childbearing age when consequences of both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia during pregnancy can adversely affect both mother and the fetus.
Adverse outcomes of recurrent hypoglycaemia to the fetus can include small for gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction and possible impairment of beta cell function.
Providing adequate carbohydrate intake to allow growth of the fetus during pregnancy while also attempting to resolve both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia associated with PBH by reducing the intake of simple carbohydrates and high glycaemic index foods can prove challenging.
Patients should be adequately consented for late complications of RYGB surgery such as PBH in order to allow early recognition of symptoms and enable prompt treatment.
Pancreatic dysgenesis (PD) is a rare congenital disease, with less than 100 cases reported in the literature. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is made incidentally. In this report, we present the case of two brothers with a history of intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, hyperglycemia, and poor weight gain. The diagnosis of PD and neonatal diabetes mellitus was made by an interdisciplinary team composed of an endocrinologist, a gastroenterologist, and a geneticist. Once the diagnosis was made, treatment with an insulin pump, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, and supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins was decided. The use of the insulin infusion pump facilitated the outpatient treatment of both patients.
Pancreatic dysgenesis is a relatively rare congenital anomaly; most of the time, patients are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally.
The diagnosis of pancreatic dysgenesis and neonatal diabetes mellitus should be made with an interdisciplinary team.
Due to its flexibility, the use of an insulin infusion pump facilitated the management of these two patients.
Unawareness of postprandial hypoglycemia for 5 years was identified in a 66-year-old man at a local clinic. The patient was referred to our hospital because of this first awareness of hypoglycemia (i.e. lightheadedness and impaired consciousness) developing after lunch. In a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, the plasma glucose concentration was decreased to 32 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) at 150 min with relatively high concentrations of insulin (8.1 μU/mL), proinsulin (70.3 pmol/L), and C-peptide (4.63 ng/mL). In a prolonged fasting test, the plasma glucose concentration was decreased to 43 mg/dL (2.4 mmol/L) at 66 h with an insulin concentration of 1.4 μU/mL and a C-peptide concentration of 0.49 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed an 18 mm hyperenhancing tumor in the uncinate process of the pancreas. A selective arterial calcium stimulation test showed an elevated serum insulin concentration in the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was then diagnosed with insulinoma and received pancreaticoduodenectomy. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using the Dexcom G6 system showed unawareness of hypoglycemia mainly during the daytime before surgery. When the sensor glucose value was reduced to 55 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L), the Dexcom G6 system emitted an urgent low glucose alarm to the patient four times for 10 days. Two months after surgery, an overall increase in daily blood glucose concentrations and resolution of hypoglycemia were shown by CGM. We report a case of insulinoma with unawareness of postprandial hypoglycemia in the patient. The Dexcom G6 system was helpful for assessing preoperative hypoglycemia and for evaluating outcomes of treatment by surgery.
Insulinoma occasionally leads to postprandial hypoglycemia.
The CGM system is useful for revealing the presence of unnoticed hypoglycemia and for evaluating treatment outcomes after surgical resection.
The Dexcom G6 system has an urgent low glucose alarm, making it particularly suitable for patients who are unaware of hypoglycemia.