Unawareness of postprandial hypoglycemia for 5 years was identified in a 66-year-old man at a local clinic. The patient was referred to our hospital because of this first awareness of hypoglycemia (i.e. lightheadedness and impaired consciousness) developing after lunch. In a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, the plasma glucose concentration was decreased to 32 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) at 150 min with relatively high concentrations of insulin (8.1 μU/mL), proinsulin (70.3 pmol/L), and C-peptide (4.63 ng/mL). In a prolonged fasting test, the plasma glucose concentration was decreased to 43 mg/dL (2.4 mmol/L) at 66 h with an insulin concentration of 1.4 μU/mL and a C-peptide concentration of 0.49 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed an 18 mm hyperenhancing tumor in the uncinate process of the pancreas. A selective arterial calcium stimulation test showed an elevated serum insulin concentration in the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was then diagnosed with insulinoma and received pancreaticoduodenectomy. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using the Dexcom G6 system showed unawareness of hypoglycemia mainly during the daytime before surgery. When the sensor glucose value was reduced to 55 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L), the Dexcom G6 system emitted an urgent low glucose alarm to the patient four times for 10 days. Two months after surgery, an overall increase in daily blood glucose concentrations and resolution of hypoglycemia were shown by CGM. We report a case of insulinoma with unawareness of postprandial hypoglycemia in the patient. The Dexcom G6 system was helpful for assessing preoperative hypoglycemia and for evaluating outcomes of treatment by surgery.
Insulinoma occasionally leads to postprandial hypoglycemia.
The CGM system is useful for revealing the presence of unnoticed hypoglycemia and for evaluating treatment outcomes after surgical resection.
The Dexcom G6 system has an urgent low glucose alarm, making it particularly suitable for patients who are unaware of hypoglycemia.
Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a subtype of epithelial ovarian tumors, with sertoliform endometrioid carcinomas being a rare variant. We report a case of a previously healthy premenopausal woman presenting with androgenic symptoms in the form of hirsutism and male pattern alopecia. On further testing, she was found to have high levels of luteinizing hormone and total testosterone levels, and imaging revealed a large pelvic abdominal mass in the right ovary. She underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopy and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma. Her symptoms improved significantly on follow-up. Androgenic tumors might not be common in premenopausal women; however, it is important to maintain a high level of suspicion in patients presenting with virilizing symptoms especially of rapid progression.
Our 47-year-old patient presented with virilizing symptoms that were rapidly progressing, which raises the suspicion of an underlying androgen secreting neoplasm.
Sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma (SEC) is an extremely rare variant of endometrioid carcinomas and tend to present at an earlier stage as compared to most endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary.
Recognition of SEC in virilizing patients is important as it is a well-differentiated, low-grade malignancy with a good prognosis when confined to the ovary.
Yoshiyu TakedaDepartment of Health Promotion and Medicine of the Future, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Asanogawa General Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the emergence of telemedicine on a global scale. In endocrinology, telemedicine has mainly been used in relation to chronic diseases, including diabetes. Herein, we report the case of an 18-year-old woman with a hypertensive emergency due to a pheochromocytoma who was quickly diagnosed and treated using telemedicine. The patient was referred to a cardiovascular hospital because of fatigue and sweating that did not improve with carvedilol. She had fluctuating blood pressure and tachycardia. Subsequently, since her thyroid function was normal, endocrine hypertension not due to thyroid dysfunction was suspected; a case consultation was made by phone to our clinic. Plain computed tomography (CT) was recommended owing to the high possibility of a pheochromocytoma; the CT scan showed an adrenal tumor with a 30 mm diameter. To assess her condition, endocrinologists, together with the attending doctor, interviewed her and her family directly using an online tool to obtain detailed information. We thus determined that she was at risk of a pheochromocytoma crisis. She was transferred to our hospital immediately for treatment, was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, and underwent surgery. Telemedicine, especially involving doctor-to-patient with doctor consultations, can be effective in treating rare and emergent medical conditions such as pheochromocytoma crisis.
Telemedicine can be used for chronic diseases and emergency conditions.
Online doctor-to-patient with doctor (D-to-P with D) consultations are useful when the expert opinion of a highly specialized physician present in a different geographical location is required.
Telemedicine, especially D-to-P with D online consultations, can be effectively used for the diagnosis of rare and emergent medical conditions, such as pheochromocytoma crisis.
Doege–Potter syndromeis a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia due to a solitary fibrous tumor, which produces insulin-like growth factor II. In this report, we present the case of a 67-year-old male with recurrent and refractory hypoglycemia due to DPS successfully treated with imatinib. He initially presented with neuroglycopenic symptoms and dyspnea secondary to a giant tumor in the left hemithorax, which was totally resected. During follow-up, 7 years later, he presented with thoracoabdominal tumor recurrence associated with severe hypoglycemia and underwent subtotal tumor resection, with a subsequent improvement of symptoms. The following year, he had a recurrence of his intra-abdominal tumor, which was unresectable, associated with severe hypoglycemia refractory to dextrose infusion and corticosteroids, thus receiving imatinib with a favorable response. The clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, progression of the disease, and response to treatment with imatinib in the management of a patient with large, recurrent, and unresectable mesenchymal tumors with insulin-like growth factor-2 secretion causing hypoglycemiahighlight the importance of this case report.
Doege–Potter syndrome (DPS) is a rare cause of tumoral hypoglycemia of non-pancreatic origin.
Some malignant or benignant neoplasms have ectopic secretion of insulin-like growth factor-2.
Total surgical removal is the principal treatment in patients with DPS.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors management in DPS may contribute to improved tumor control in patients with unresectable tumors and severe hypoglycemia.
A 59-year-old male presented with an accidental thyroid mass in 2022. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a nodule 5.2 × 4.9 × 2.8 cm (EU-TIRADS 4) in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Taking into account the results of the fine needle aspiration biopsy (Bethesda V), intrathyroid localization, and absence of clinical symptoms, a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland was suspected. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy using fluorescence angiography with indocyanine green, and two pairs of intact parathyroid glands were visualized in typical localization. Unexpected histological and immunohistochemistry examinations revealed parathyroid carcinoma. Due to the asymptomatic course of the disease and atypical localization of parathyroid tumor, primary hyperparathyroidism was not suspected before the surgery. The diagnosis of asymptomatic intrathyroid parathyroid cancer is a serious diagnostic challenge for a wide range of specialists.
Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease that may be asymptomatic.
Intrathyroidal localization of parathyroid carcinoma is casuistic and challenging for diagnosis, and the treatment strategy is not well defined.
Preoperative parathyroid hormone and serum calcium testing are recommended for patients with solid thyroid nodules (Bethesda IV–V).
Postoperative (PO) complications after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) are rare when performed in pituitary referral centers. Partial hypopituitarism is more frequent and somewhat expected. Meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and visual deficits are unusual. Cerebrovascular complications, including cerebral vasospasm are rare, usually under-appreciated and not mentioned to the patient prior to the surgery. This is a report of a 51-year-old male with a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma presenting with partial hypopituitarism and visual field loss. The patient was submitted to an uneventful TSS. On the first PO day, he developed a left palpebral ptosis with unequal pupils and impaired consciousness (12 points on Glasgow Coma Scale). CT scan revealed a perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) grade 1 according to the modified Fisher scale. High-dose dexamethasone (16 mg/day) was initiated and the patient became more alert (Glasgow 14). On the fifth PO day, due to progression of the neurological deficits (left III, IV, and VI cranial nerves palsy, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, right dysmetria, and dysarthria), a magnetic resonance angiography was obtained and revealed a recent mesencephalic infarct without evident vasospasm. Nevertheless, nimodipine 60 mg 4/4 h was initiated. No improvement was seen after 3 days of treatment. The patient was discharged and put on rehabilitation, returning to normal gait and balance after 7 months. This, therefore, is a case of an unexpected mesencephalic infarct probably due to vasospasm induced by minor SAH. Although exceptionally rare, informing the patient about this event prior to TSS is important due to its significant neurological impact. More data are needed considering preventive treatment with nimodipine as soon as SAH is detected after TSS and whether it would improve neurological outcomes.
Whenever neurological deficits arise after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), systemic infection, meningitis, electrolyte imbalance, and evident hemorrhage must be promptly investigated.
Although rare, cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after TSS is associated with high morbidity and high mortality rates.
Vigilance for vasospasm is necessary for patients undergoing TSS for pituitary adenoma, especially those with significant suprasellar extension.
Informing this event to the patient prior to TSS is essential due to its significant morbidity and mortality.
Post-TSS subarachnoid hemorrhage and hemiparesis may be important clues indicating CVS and infarction.
There is limited evidence in the literature regarding post-TSS CVS surveillance and treatment strategies which could have an impact on clinical decisions.
A 64-year-old man with progressive metastatic castrate-resistant prostate adenocarcinoma presented with recurrent fluid overload, severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis and loss of glycaemic control. Clinical features were facial plethora, skin bruising and proximal myopathy. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol and 24-h urinary cortisol levels were elevated. Low-dose dexamethasone failed to suppress cortisol. Pituitary MRI was normal and 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET–CT scan showed only features of metastatic prostate cancer. He was diagnosed with ectopic ACTH syndrome secondary to treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer differentiation. Medical management was limited by clinical deterioration, accessibility of medications and cancer progression. Ketoconazole and cabergoline were utilised, but cortisol remained uncontrolled. He succumbed 5 months following diagnosis. Treatment-related neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma is a rare cause of ectopic ACTH syndrome.
Neuroendocrine differentiation following prostate adenocarcinoma treatment with androgen deprivation has been described.
Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome should be considered where patients with metastatic prostate cancer develop acute electrolyte disturbance or fluid overload.
Ketoconazole interferes with adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis and can be used in ectopic ACTH syndrome, but the impact may be insufficient. Inhibition of gonadal steroidogenesis is favourable in prostate cancer.
More data are required to evaluate the use of cabergoline in ectopic ACTH syndrome.
Ectopic ACTH syndrome requires prompt management and is challenging in the face of metastatic cancer.
Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare malignancy, accounting for less than 5% of all thyroid neoplasms. The follicular subtype is even more rare, accounting for approximately 10% of all PTL cases. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman, who presented with a rapidly growing goitre with mass effect and B symptoms. She had a history of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and her thyroid ultrasound revealed diffuse goitre with a dominant nodule (56 × 63 × 60 mm) within the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration of the right thyroid nodule was classified as benign, according to Bethesda System, with lymphocytic thyroiditis. A CT scan of the neck showed diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland extending towards the anterior mediastinum with tracheal deviation and lymphadenopathy within levels VII and right II–IV. The core needle biopsy of the right thyroid nodule revealed a follicular non-Hodgkin’s B cell lymphoma with a Ki67 of 60%. According to the Ann Arbor staging system, she was at stage IIIE. She underwent chemotherapy with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) with remarkable clinical improvement and is currently in remission 2 years after the diagnosis. PTL is an extremely rare malignancy that usually arises in a lymphocytic thyroiditis background, presenting as a rapidly enlarging goitre, which can lead to compressive symptoms or airway comprise.
Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare malignancy, accounting for less than 5% of thyroid neoplasms.
PTL should be suspected when a patient presents with a rapidly enlarging goitre, especially in the setting of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Fine-needle aspiration has a limited capacity for PTL diagnosis due to similar cytomorphological features of lymphoma with thyroiditis. Therefore, in case of clinical suspicion and if fine needle aspiration fails to diagnose PTL, a tissue biopsy should be performed.
Treatment is dependent on both the stage and histology of PTL. Chemotherapy and local radiotherapy remain the mainstay treatment for PTL.
Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is due to an overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by mesenchymal tumours, causing hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia and muscle weakness. TIO is usually cured by tumour resection, but neoplasms may be unidentifiable and unresectable or the patient may refuse surgery. In these cases, medical treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol is mandatory, but it is not fully effective and it is associated with low compliance. Burosumab, a human MAB against FGF23 employed to treat X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), has recently been approved for TIO in the USA. Maximum burosumab dose in XLH is 90 mg administered for 2 weeks; there are no data on clinical efficacy and safety of this dose in TIO. We reported the case of a 73 years old male with multiple non-traumatic fractures, low bone mineral density, pain and reduced independence of activities of daily living. Biochemical evaluation showed hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and normal albumin-corrected total calcium and parathyroid hormone. Tubular phosphate reabsorption was low (80%), whereas C-terminal tail of FGF23 (cFGF23) was elevated. A 68Ga-DOTATOC PET was performed, identifying a lesion in the first left rib. The patient refused surgery; therefore, burosumab therapy was started. After 18 months of treatment (maximum dose: 60 mg administered for 2 weeks), plasma phosphate normalized and ALP levels improved (138 U/L). Patient clinical symptoms as well as pain severity and fatigue improved. Neither adverse events nor tumour progression was reported during follow-up except for a painless fracture of the second right rib.
Our case shows efficacy and safety of burosumab treatment administered every 2 weeks in a tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) patient.
After 18 months of treatment at a maximum dose of 60 mg every 2 weeks, we found plasma phosphate normalization and ALP reduction as well as improvement in clinical symptoms and fatigue.
Neither adverse events nor tumour progression was reported during follow-up, except for a painless fracture of the second right rib.
Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare neuroendocrine prostatic malignancy. It usually arises after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while de novo cases are even more infrequent, with only six cases described. The patient was a 78-year-old man with no history of ADT who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic approaches included PET/CT, MRI, CT scans, ultrasonography, biopsies, and cytological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Results showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma in the thyroid gland accompanied by cervical lymph node enlargement. Thyroid surgery revealed LCNEC metastasis to the thyroid gland. Additional metastases were identified in both the adrenal glands. Despite appropriate treatment, the patient died of the disease. De novo LCNEC of the prostate is a rare, highly aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is resistant to most therapeutic agents, has a high metastatic potential, and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Further studies are required to characterize this tumor.
De novo LCNECs of the prostate gland can metastasize almost anywhere in the body, including the thyroid and adrenal glands.
LCNECs of the prostate are usually associated with androgen-depriving therapy, but de novo cases are also notable and should be accounted for.
Further studies are required to fully understand and treat LCNECs more effectively.