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Vahab Fatourechi Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Amy A Swanson Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Robert A Lee Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Summary

We report the case of a male patient with papillary thyroid cancer, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection, and a variation in the MYH11 gene. Because of considerable tumor bulk in the neck that was not resectable, the patient underwent partial resection at age 14 years. Since then, the patient has received only suppressive thyroid hormone therapy. He is now 71 years old, which is 57 years after the initial resection. The patient received care at our institution from July 2009 to August 2019, during which we documented the stability of multiple calcified masses in the neck. Follow-up examinations at another institution from September 2019 to April 2023 also confirmed the stability of the masses. The underlying cause of this unusually long indolent course of the disease is unclear. Whether extensive tumor calcifications or the MYH11 sequence variation contributed to the disease course is also uncertain.

Learning points

  • Papillary thyroid cancer with neck metastases may, in some cases, be stable and remain asymptomatic for decades.

  • If locoregional stability of papillary thyroid cancer is documented for many years, observation may be preferable to extensive neck surgery in selected cases.

  • This is the first report of an MYH11 gene alteration and thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer with indolent neck metastases.

  • Future studies of MYH11 gene alterations in thyroid carcinoma are needed.

Open access
Motohiro Kubori Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Megumi Fujimoto Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Yukiyoshi Okauchi Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Kanae Matsuno Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Eri Yamabayashi Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Ryuki Sakamoto Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Shinya Inada Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Hiromi Iwahashi Diabetes Center, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

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Summary

IgG4-related disease is a multiorgan disorder in which nodules and hypertrophic lesions are observed simultaneously, or separately, in areas including the pancreas, liver, lungs, salivary glands, thyroid glands, and pituitary glands. IgG4-related hypophysis is one of several IgG4-related diseases and is characterized by pituitary gland and pituitary stalk thickening, various degrees of hypopituitarism, and increased serum IgG4 levels. Steroid therapy is effective for patients with IgG4-related hypophysis, but the reported effectiveness of steroid therapy for restoring pituitary function differs between studies. Following an episode of autoimmune pancreatitis 10 years prior, enlargement of the pituitary gland and stalk along with panhypopituitarism and polyuria developed in a 73-year-old male. A high serum IgG4 level and biopsy of the submandibular gland showing infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells led to a clinical diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis. Prednisolone treatment reduced the swelling of the pituitary gland and stalk and improved anterior pituitary function. Although arginine vasopressin secretion remained insufficient, polyuria was relieved and kept in remission even after prednisolone treatment was completed. This is the first reported case in which prednisolone was able to maintain both normal anterior pituitary function and remission of polyuria caused by IgG4-related hypophysitis. IgG4-related hypophysitis has previously been associated with a relapse of symptoms during treatment. However, the patient reported in this case study remained in remission for over 3 months after completion of steroid treatment and should be monitored closely for changes in pituitary function.

Learning points

  • Steroid therapy is the first-line therapy for pituitary dysfunction and pituitary stalk swelling in IgG4-related hypophysitis.

  • In this case, although posterior pituitary function remained insufficient, polyuria was relieved and kept in remission for over 3 months even after prednisolone treatment was completed.

  • IgG4-related hypophysitis has been associated with the relapse of symptoms during steroid tapering, and changes in pituitary function and symptoms should be monitored closely.

  • When we encounter cases of adrenal insufficiency and polyuria during observation of autoimmune pancreatitis or other IgG4-related disease, we should consider the possibility of IgG4-related hypophysitis in mind.

Open access
Hiroaki Iwasaki Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Toshiba Rinkan Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Minamiyamato Hospital, Yamato, Kanagawa, Japan

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Summary

A 73-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to our department for glycaemic control. Physical examination revealed two subcutaneous hard masses around the left shoulder and the right hip joint. The patient could not fully extend her fingers because of skin sclerosis in both hands. Laboratory studies showed hyperphosphataemia and a high ratio of renal tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphate to glomerular filtration rate. There were no abnormalities in serum calcium, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and intact parathyroid hormone levels, whereas serum fibroblast growth factor 23 was low. Hyperphosphataemic familial tumoural calcinosis/hyperostosis-hyperphosphataemia syndrome (HFTC/HHS) was diagnosed using whole genome sequencing that revealed a novel frameshift beyond the 584th threonine located in the lectin domain of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 associated with a duplication of the 1748th thymine in the coding region of the corresponding gene. Furthermore, anti-nuclear, anti-centromere, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies were positive, implying that comorbid limited type scleroderma might play a role in tumoural calcinosis (TC) development. A low phosphate diet was prescribed with phosphate-lowering medications, including aluminium hydroxide, acetazolamide, and sevelamer hydrochloride. The patient displayed a decrease in serum phosphate levels from 6.5 to 5.5 mg/dL 10 months after the initiation of treatment, but her TC had not improved during treatment for more than 1 year. This case was interesting because the patient with HFTC/HHS exhibited TC despite being over her 60s, and subsequent scleroderma might contribute to the specific clinical course. When HFTC/HHS presents with elderly-onset TC, the involvement of comorbidities in exacerbating TC should be considered.

Learning points

  • HFTC/HHS occurs on an autosomal recessive basis, but its clinical course and manifestations differ significantly throughout the cases.

  • HFTC/HHS may be undiagnosed until later in life because of its rarity, unfamiliarity, and phenotype diversity; therefore, HFTC/HHS should be included in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients with unexplained hyperphosphataemia or ectopic calcinosis.

  • Comorbidities, including rheumatologic disorders, may contribute to developing HFTC/HHS-associated calcinosis.

Open access
Andreia Amado Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Elisabete Teixeira i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Sule Canberk i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Sofia Macedo i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal

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Bárbara Castro Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Hugo Pereira Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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João Varanda Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Susana Graça Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Amélia Tavares Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Carlos Soares Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Maria João Oliveira Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Manuel Oliveira Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal

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Paula Soares i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Manuel Sobrinho Simões i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Antónia Afonso Póvoa Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, Portugal, R. Conceição Fernandes S/N, 4434-502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, R. Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
IPATIMUP - Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Summary

We report a 61-year-old male patient without personal history of thyroid carcinoma or radiation exposure. In 2011, he presented with a cervical mass whose biopsy diagnosed a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in a lymph node metastasis (LNM). Total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy of central and ipsilateral compartment was performed. Histopathology identified a 2 mm follicular variant of PTC and LNM in 25/25 lymph nodes. The patient was treated with 150 mCi of radioactive iodine (RAI), followed by levothyroxine suppressive therapy. In 2016, a retrotracheal mass was diagnosed, suggesting local recurrence; patient was submitted to surgical excision and RAI therapy (120 mCi). Due to seizures, in 2019, a brain CT was performed that diagnosed brain metastases. The patient underwent debulking of the main lesion. Histopathology analysis confirmed a metastatic lesion with variated morphology: classical PTC and follicular pattern and hobnail and tall cell features. Molecular analysis revealed BRAFV600E in LNM at presentation and BRAFV600E and TERT promoter (TERTp) mutations in the recurrent LNM and brain metastasis. Based upon this experience we review the reported cases of subcentimetric PTC with brain metastases and discuss the molecular progression of the present case.

Learning points

  • Papillary microcarcinoma (PMCs) usually have very good prognosis with low impact on patient survival.

  • PMCs presenting in elderly patients with LNM at diagnosis may carry a guarded outcome.

  • Brain metastasis although rare indicate aggressive phenotypic features.

  • Patient risk stratification of PMCs based on histopathological analysis and genetic testing may have a significant impact on prognosis providing therapeutic markers, that may predict disease progression and overall outcome.

Open access
Tatsuro Aikawa Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Eiryu Sai Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Ayako Kudo Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Yuko O Kawaguchi Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Kazuhisa Takamura Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka, Urayasu-shi, Chiba, Japan

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Makoto Hiki Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Takayuki Yokoyama Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Tetsuro Miyazaki Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Tomioka, Urayasu-shi, Chiba, Japan

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Shinichiro Fujimoto Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Kazunori Shimada Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Ken-ichi Hirano Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics and Triglyceride Research Center (TGRC), Department of Triglyceride Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka, Japan

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Hiroyuki Daida Faculty of Health Science, Juntendo University, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Tohru Minamino Department of Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development-Core Research for Evolutionary Medical Science and Technology (AMED-CREST), Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Summary

Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is an intractable disease characterized by massive triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the myocardium and coronary arteries caused by genetic or acquired dysfunction of adipose TG lipase (ATGL). A phase IIa trial has been conducted involving patients with idiopathic TGCV using CNT-01 (tricaprin/trisdecanoin) by the Japan TGCV study group, which showed that CNT-01 improved myocardial lipolysis as demonstrated by iodine-123-beta-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. We evaluated changes in myocardial TG content using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) before/after CNT-01. This report describes a male patient with hypertension, diabetes, angina pectoris, repeated percutaneous coronary intervention, chest pain, and exertional dyspnea that persisted despite standard medications and nitroglycerin. Idiopathic TGCV was diagnosed based on a remarkably reduced washout rate (WR) for BMIPP scintigraphy, high myocardial TG content on 1H-MRS, and no ATGL mutation. After an 8-week, 1.5 g/day CNT-01 administration, the WR of BMIPP increased from 5.1 to 13.3% and the myocardial TG content decreased from 8.4 to 5.9%, with no adverse effects. CNT-01 corrected myocardial lipolysis and subsequently reduced TG content in idiopathic TGCV as evaluated using 1H-MRS, which may be a useful, noninvasive evaluation of therapeutic efficacy.

Learning points

  • Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is an intractable disease characterized by massive triglyceride accumulation in the myocardium and coronary arteries, caused by genetic or acquired dysfunction of adipose triglyceride lipase.

  • Japan TGCV Study Group developed a specific treatment for idiopathic TGCV using CNT-01 (tricaprin/trisdecanoin), a type of medium-chain fatty acid.

  • CNT-01 corrected myocardial lipolysis and reduced TG content in idiopathic TGCV using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which may be a useful noninvasive evaluation of therapeutic efficacy.

Open access
Mawson Wang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Markus J Seibel Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Concord Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Summary

We report the case of a 69-year-old female with systemic mastocytosis, diagnosed based on widespread pigmented papules and macules, elevated serum tryptase levels and confirmatory skin and bone marrow biopsy, on a background of osteoporosis. A CT demonstrated multiple sclerotic lesions within lumbar vertebral bodies, sacrum and ileum, with surrounding osteolysis but no obvious compression fractures. She was treated with the RANK-L inhibitor denosumab, resulting in significant bone mineral density gain over the following 5 years. However, her serum tryptase levels gradually increased during this period despite treatment with the multikinase inhibitor, midostaurin. It is thus conceivable that her rapid increase in bone mineral density may be partly contributed by a predominance of pro-osteoblastic mediators released by abnormal mast cells, suggestive of more advanced disease. This case highlights the complexities of systemic mastocytosis-related bone disease and the interplay of numerous mediators contributing to a phenotype of both increased bone resorption and formation.

Learning points

  • Systemic mastocytosis is a neoplastic disease of mast cells characterized by abnormal proliferation and accumulation in the skin and other organs. It is most frequently associated with the somatic gain-of-function KIT D816V mutation.

  • Systemic mastocytosis should be suspected in patients presenting with not only cutaneous symptoms suggestive of mast cell degranulation such as anaphylaxis, flushing or urticaria but also unexplained osteoporosis and gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms.

  • The prevalence of osteoporosis in systemic mastocytosis is high. Mast cell activation leads to the secretion of numerous chemical mediators which either promote or inhibit osteoclastic and/or osteoblastic activity, with the balance usually in favour of increased bone resorption. However, in advanced diseases with high mast cell burden, mast-cell-derived cytokines and mediators may promote osteoblastic activity, leading to osteosclerosis and apparent increases in bone mineral density.

  • Treatment of osteoporosis in systemic mastocytosis involves antiresorptive therapy with bisphosphonates and more recently, denosumab. There are limited data on the role of osteoanabolic agents.

Open access
S J Roman RegeneSpine Regenerative Spine and Joint Institute, New Jersey, USA

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Zach Broyer Advanced Relief Institute, Florida, USA

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Summary

Painful peripheral polyneuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is a significant source of chronic disability and remains a challenging condition with no available disease-modifying treatment. In the present case report, we describe the treatment of a patient featuring painful diabetic neuropathy with perineural injections of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). At one-year post-procedure, the patient exhibited improved scores on the neuropathic pain scale and improvement in the activity level.

Learning points

  • Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is an autologous product that can be prepared and administered in a physician’s office.

  • PRGF can be infiltrated as a liquid, creating a three-dimensional gel scaffold in the body.

  • PRGF releases growth factors involved in nerve healing.

  • PRGF may be established as a potent alternative treatment of painful diabetic polyneuropathy.

Open access
Evangelos Karvounis Department of Endocrine Surgery, ‘Euroclinic’ Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Ioannis Zoupas Department of Endocrine Surgery, ‘Euroclinic’ Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Dimitra Bantouna Private Practice, Patras, Greece

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Rodis D Paparodis Private Practice, Patras, Greece
Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, Ohio, USA

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Roxani Efthymiadou PET-CT Department, Hygeia Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Christina Ioakimidou Department of Pathology

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Christos Panopoulos Department of Medical Oncology, ‘Euroclinic’ Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Summary

Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare neuroendocrine prostatic malignancy. It usually arises after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while de novo cases are even more infrequent, with only six cases described. The patient was a 78-year-old man with no history of ADT who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic approaches included PET/CT, MRI, CT scans, ultrasonography, biopsies, and cytological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Results showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma in the thyroid gland accompanied by cervical lymph node enlargement. Thyroid surgery revealed LCNEC metastasis to the thyroid gland. Additional metastases were identified in both the adrenal glands. Despite appropriate treatment, the patient died of the disease. De novo LCNEC of the prostate is a rare, highly aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is resistant to most therapeutic agents, has a high metastatic potential, and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Further studies are required to characterize this tumor.

Learning points

  • De novo LCNECs of the prostate gland can metastasize almost anywhere in the body, including the thyroid and adrenal glands.

  • LCNECs of the prostate are usually associated with androgen-depriving therapy, but de novo cases are also notable and should be accounted for.

  • Further studies are required to fully understand and treat LCNECs more effectively.

Open access
Nnennaya U Opara Emergency Medicine, Charleston Area Medical Centre, Institute for Academic Medicine, Charleston, West Virginia, USA

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Summary

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2) is one of the important causes of low-grade chronic inflammation (meta inflammation) seen in almost all tissues in the body. Other possible mechanisms involved in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with DM-2 are the hypertonicity of the peripheral sympathetic nerves and hyperinsulinemia effects on the autonomous nervous system activity. These further suggests that abnormalities in glucose homeostasis influence the hyperproliferation of the prostate cells resulting in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Similarly, hepatic steatosis, a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence among patients with DM-2, is as high as 75%. NAFLD has no symptoms in most diabetic patients. In this study, we present a case of a 64-year-old Black male who had worsening urinary urgency and hesitancy for 4 months, with increasing abdominal girth. Patient was found to have symptoms, diagnostic studies, and physical exam findings indicative of BPH and fatty liver disease. He was treated with hepato-protective medications, tighter control of his blood glucose levels, and blood pressure meds for 13 months. Upon follow-up, most of his symptoms were resolved. Timeline of BPH resolution and decrease in liver size following treatment suggest that DM-2 has a strong correlation with the development of BPH and fatty liver disease in most patients living with diabetes.

Learning points

  • Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) tend to have significantly lower serum PSA level, lower testosterone levels, and larger prostate volume compared to non-diabetic male patients.

  • Patients with DM-2 have higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis, liver cirrhosis, and end-stage liver failure.

  • The role of metformin in reducing hepatic steatosis as stated by several studies is yet to be validated as our patient has been on metformin for 22 years for the management of DM-2 with fatty liver disease.

Open access
Rigya Arya Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Tehmina Ahmad Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Satya Dash Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Summary

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with unclear etiology. When present, CDI in AML has most often been described in patients with chromosome 3 or 7 aberrations and no abnormalities on brain imaging. In this case, we present a woman with newly diagnosed AML t(12;14)(p12;q13) found to have diabetes insipidus (DI) with partial anterior pituitary dysfunction and abnormal brain imaging. While in hospital, the patient developed an elevated serum sodium of 151 mmol/L with a serum osmolality of 323 mmol/kg and urine osmolality of 154 mmol/kg. On history, she reported polyuria and polydipsia for 5 months preceding hospitalization. Based on her clinical symptoms and biochemistry, she was diagnosed with DI and treated using intravenous desmopressin with good effect; sodium improved to 144 mmol/L with a serum osmolality of 302 mmol/kg and urine osmolality of 501 mmol/kg. An MRI of the brain done for the assessment of neurologic involvement revealed symmetric high-T2 signal within the hypothalamus extending into the mamillary bodies bilaterally, a partially empty sella, and loss of the pituitary bright spot. A pituitary panel was completed which suggested partial anterior pituitary dysfunction. The patient’s robust improvement with low-dose desmopressin therapy along with her imaging findings indicated a central rather than nephrogenic cause for her DI. Given the time course of her presentation with respect to her AML diagnosis, MRI findings, and investigations excluding other causes, her CDI and partial anterior pituitary dysfunction were suspected to be secondary to hypothalamic leukemic infiltration.

Learning points

  • Leukemic infiltration of the pituitary gland is a rare cause of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

  • Patients with AML and CDI may compensate for polyuria and prevent hypernatremia with increased water intake.

  • AML-associated CDI can require long-term desmopressin treatment, independent of AML response to treatment.

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