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Mona Abouzaid, Ahmed Al-Sharefi, Satish Artham, Ibrahim Masri, Ajay Kotagiri and Ashwin Joshi


An 82-year-old male with a proven diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) was found to have bilateral changes in the fundi during a routine eye examination which were consistent with SC. In this report, we discuss the link between SC and PHPT and question the need for prospective observational studies to establish the true association between these conditions. Though screening PHPT patients for SC might not be justified/warranted given the benign course of the latter, patients with SC need to be assessed for PHPT, as the former may be the first clue to an underlying treatable systemic disease.

Learning points:

  • Sclerochoroidal calcifications (SCs), though rare and harmless, could be associated with an underlying systemic disease, such as primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).

  • Biochemical screening for hypercalcaemia is a simple, cheap and widely available tool that could facilitate an identification of undiagnosed PHPT in patients with SC.

  • A joint care by endocrinologists and ophthalmologists is warranted for those patients, as thorough investigations and long-term follow-up plans are crucial.

Open access

Bidhya Timilsina, Niranjan Tachamo, Prem Raj Parajuli and Ilan Gabriely


A 74-year-old woman presented with progressive lethargy, confusion, poor appetite and abdominal pain. She was found to have non-PTH-mediated severe hypercalcemia with renal failure and metabolic alkalosis. Extensive workup for hypercalcemia to rule out alternate etiology was unrevealing. Upon further questioning, she was taking excess calcium carbonate (Tums) for her worsening heartburn. She was diagnosed with milk-alkali syndrome (MAS). Her hypercalcemia and alkalosis recovered completely with aggressive hydration along with improvement in her renal function. High index of suspicion should be maintained and history of drug and supplements, especially calcium ingestion, should be routinely asked in patients presenting with hypercalcemia to timely diagnose MAS and prevent unnecessary tests and treatments.

Learning points:

  • Suspect milk-alkali syndrome in patients with hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis and renal failure, especially in context of ingestion of excess calcium-containing supplements.

  • Careful history of over-the-counter medications, supplements and diet is crucial to diagnose milk-alkali syndrome.

  • Milk-alkali syndrome may cause severe hypercalcemia in up to 25–30% of cases.