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Open access

Hui Yi Ng, Divya Namboodiri, Diana Learoyd, Andrew Davidson, Bernard Champion and Veronica Preda

Summary

Co-secreting thyrotropin/growth hormone (GH) pituitary adenomas are rare; their clinical presentation and long-term management are challenging. There is also a paucity of long-term data. Due to the cell of origin, these can behave as aggressive tumours. We report a case of a pituitary plurihormonal pit-1-derived macroadenoma, with overt clinical hyperthyroidism and minimal GH excess symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology showing elevated thyroid and GH axes with failure of physiological GH suppression, elevated pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit (αGSU) and macroadenoma on imaging. Pre-operatively the patient was rendered euthyroid with carbimazole and underwent successful transphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) with surgical cure. Histopathology displayed an elevated Ki-67 of 5.2%, necessitating long-term follow-up.

Learning points:

  • Thyrotropinomas are rare and likely under-diagnosed due to under-recognition of secondary hyperthyroidism.
  • Thyrotropinomas and other plurihormonal pit-1-derived adenomas are more aggressive adenomas according to WHO guidelines.
  • Co-secretion occurs in 30% of thyrotropinomas, requiring diligent investigation and long-term follow-up of complications.
Open access

Anne Marie Hannon, Isolda Frizelle, George Kaar, Steven J Hunter, Mark Sherlock, Christopher J Thompson, Domhnall J O’Halloran and the Irish Pituitary Database Group

Summary

Pregnancy in acromegaly is rare and generally safe, but tumour expansion may occur. Managing tumour expansion during pregnancy is complex, due to the potential complications of surgery and side effects of anti-tumoural medication. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with acromegaly at 11-week gestation. She had a large macroadenoma invading the suprasellar cistern. She developed bitemporal hemianopia at 20-week gestation. She declined surgery and was commenced on 100 µg subcutaneous octreotide tds, with normalisation of her visual fields after 2 weeks of therapy. She had a further deterioration in her visual fields at 24-week gestation, which responded to an increase in subcutaneous octreotide to 150 µg tds. Her vision remained stable for the remainder of the pregnancy. She was diagnosed with gestational diabetes at 14/40 and was commenced on basal bolus insulin regimen at 22/40 gestation. She otherwise had no obstetric complications. Foetal growth continued along the 50th centile throughout pregnancy. She underwent an elective caesarean section at 34/40, foetal weight was 3.2 kg at birth with an APGAR score of 9. The neonate was examined by an experienced neonatologist and there were no congenital abnormalities identified. She opted not to breastfeed and she is menstruating regularly post-partum. She was commenced on octreotide LAR 40 mg and referred for surgery. At last follow-up, 2 years post-partum, the infant has been developing normally. In conclusion, our case describes a first presentation of acromegaly in pregnancy and rescue of visual field loss with somatostatin analogue therapy.

Learning points:

  • Tumour expansion may occur in acromegaly during pregnancy.
  • Treatment options for tumour expansion in pregnancy include both medical and surgical options.
  • Somatostatin analogues may be a viable medical alternative to surgery in patients with tumour expansion during pregnancy.
Open access

Laura Hamilton Adams and Derick Adams

Summary

Co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenomas are rare. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of neck fullness. Ultrasound revealed multiple thyroid nodules and examination revealed several clinical features of acromegaly. She was found to have a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary macroadenoma. She underwent surgical resection followed by gamma knife radiation, which resulted in complete remission of her TSH and GH-secreting adenoma.

Learning points:

  • TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and about one-third co-secrete other hormones.
  • Thyroid nodules are common in acromegaly and can be the presenting sign of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • In the workup of acromegaly, assessment of other pituitary hormones is essential, even in the absence of symptoms of other pituitary hormone dysfunction.
  • Complete remission of co-secreting GH and TSH pituitary macroadenomas is possible with surgery and radiation alone.
Open access

Rajesh Rajendran, Sarita Naik, Derek D Sandeman and Azraai B Nasruddin

Summary

We report the use of pasireotide in a rare and unusual case of pituitary macroadenoma co-secreting GH, prolactin and ACTH. A 62-year-old Caucasian man presented with impotence. Clinically, he appeared acromegalic and subsequent investigations confirmed GH excess and hyperprolactinaemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary revealed a large pituitary macroadenoma. He underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery and histology confirmed an adenoma with immunohistochemistry positive for ACTH, GH and prolactin. Acromegaly was not cured following surgery and inadequately controlled despite subsequent octreotide therapy. He underwent further debulking pituitary surgery, following which IGF1 levels improved but still high. This time adenoma cells showed immunohistochemistry positivity for ACTH only, following which subsequent investigations confirmed intermittent hypercortisolaemia compatible with pituitary Cushing's disease. We recommended radiotherapy, but in view of the pluripotential nature of the tumour, we proceeded with a trial of s.c. pasireotide therapy on the basis that it may control both his acromegaly and Cushing's disease. After 3 months of pasireotide therapy, his mean GH and IGF1 levels improved significantly, with improvement in his symptoms but intermittent hypercortisolaemia persists. His glycaemic control deteriorated requiring addition of new anti-diabetic medication. MRI imaging showed loss of contrast uptake within the tumour following pasireotide therapy but no change in size. We conclude that our patient has had a partial response to pasireotide therapy. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to establish its safety and efficacy in patients with acromegaly and/or Cushing's disease.

Learning points

  • Plurihormonal pituitary adenomas are rare and unusual.
  • Patients with pituitary adenomas co-secreting ACTH and GH are more likely to present with acromegaly because GH excess can mask hypercortisolaemia.
  • Pasireotide holds potential where conventional somatostatin analogues are not effective in acromegaly due to higher affinity for somatostatin receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 5.
  • Significant deterioration in glycaemic control remains a concern in the use of pasireotide.
  • Currently, long-term safety and efficacy of pasireotide in patients with acromegaly and/or Cushing's disease are not fully clear.