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  • Altered level of consciousness x
  • Pituitary adenoma x
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Open access

Chun-Han Lo and Ding-Ping Sun

Summary

Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. Traditionally, inappropriately elevated levels of insulin in the face of hypoglycemia are the key to diagnosis. However, contradictory levels of insulin and C-peptide do not necessarily exclude the diagnosis. A 50-year-old female was brought to our emergency department because of conscious disturbance on the previous night. She had no history of diabetes mellitus, and was not using any medications or alcohol. Laboratory data showed low sugar, a significantly low insulin level, and elevated C-peptide. After admission, she had multiple episodes of spontaneous hypoglycemia after overnight fasts without discomfort. It was considered that a neuroendocrine tumor was the source of her hypoglycemia. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 1.1cm hypervascular nodule in the pancreatic tail. Elective laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was incorporated into her treatment course. A 1.2×1.0cm homogenous well-encapsulated tumor was resected. We monitored her glucose levels in the outpatient clinic every month for a period of six months. She did not have another episode of spontaneous hypoglycemia.

Learning points

  • Insulinoma causes endogenous hypoglycemia – it cannot be ruled out in patients presenting with hypoglycemia and low insulin levels; history and imaging studies should be done for further assessment
  • A 24-h fast test has the same clinical significance as that of 72-h fast test
  • C-peptide is a useful biochemical marker in addition to serum insulin, which can be used to diagnose insulinomas
  • CT scan is used to measure the tumor size and localize the tumor. However, definitive diagnosis is only achieved through histopathologic evaluation of diseased tissue

Open access

Niki Margari and Simon Page

Summary

A 56-year-old man was brought to the Emergency Department after being found collapsed at his office with a reduced level of consciousness. From clinical examination and initial investigations, he was diagnosed as having bacterial meningitis and was promptly commenced on empirical i.v. antibiotics. Computed tomography of the brain revealed a parenchymal mass at the base of the skull and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the head 4 days later confirmed a large soft tissue mass, which extended through to the cavernous sinus. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following lumbar puncture confirmed pneumococcal meningitis and antibiotics were continued for 2 weeks in total. During the admission, hormone profiling revealed a grossly elevated prolactin. When coupled with the initial results of the brain imaging, this result helped to confirm a macroprolactinoma that was invading the postnasal space. A final diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis secondary to invading prolactinoma was made. The patient was started on cabergoline and was followed up in the outpatient clinic upon discharge. He made a full recovery from the meningitis. Over the next few months, prolactin levels returned to be normal and the prolactinoma shrank significantly in size. The patient remains on cabergoline that will most likely be continued indefinitely.

Learning points

  • Bacterial meningitis is a rare first presentation of pituitary macroprolactinoma.
  • Patients with invasive macroprolactinoma do not always present with CSF leakage.
  • Prompt treatment with antibiotics and a dopamine agonist is of great importance for a favourable outcome.
  • Close monitoring of the patient for signs of raised intracranial pressure is essential in the management of macroprolactinoma.
  • Note the risk of CSF leakage after initiation of dopamine agonist therapy irrespective of concomitant meningitis in macroprolactinoma.