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Karen Decaestecker Department of Diabetology-Endocrinology, AZ Nikolaas, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium

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Veerle Wijtvliet Department of Diabetology-Endocrinology, AZ Nikolaas, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium

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Peter Coremans Department of Diabetology-Endocrinology, AZ Nikolaas, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium

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Nike Van Doninck Department of Diabetology-Endocrinology, AZ Nikolaas, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium

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Summary

ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism is caused by an ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) in 20% of cases. We report a rare cause of EAS in a 41-year-old woman, presenting with clinical features of Cushing’s syndrome which developed over several months. Biochemical tests revealed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and high morning cortisol and ACTH levels. Further testing, including 24-hour urine analysis, late-night saliva and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, confirmed hypercortisolism. An MRI of the pituitary gland was normal. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) revealed inconsistent results, with a raised basal gradient but no rise after CRH stimulation. Additional PET-CT showed intense metabolic activity in the left nasal vault. Biopsy of this lesion revealed an unsuspected cause of Cushing’s syndrome: an olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) with positive immunostaining for ACTH. Our patient underwent transnasal resection of the tumour mass, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Normalisation of cortisol and ACTH levels was seen immediately after surgery. Hydrocortisone substitution was started to prevent withdrawal symptoms. As the hypothalamic–pituitary–axis slowly recovered, daily hydrocortisone doses were tapered and stopped 4 months after surgery. Clinical Cushing’s stigmata improved gradually.

Learning points:

  • Ectopic ACTH syndrome can originate from tumours outside the thoracoabdominal region, like the sinonasal cavity.

  • The diagnostic accuracy of IPSS is not 100%: both false positives and false negatives may occur and might be due to a sinonasal tumour with ectopic ACTH secretion.

  • Olfactory neuroblastoma (syn. esthesioneuroblastoma), named because of its sensory (olfactory) and neuroectodermal origin in the upper nasal cavity, is a rare malignant neoplasm. It should not be confused with neuroblastoma, a tumour of the sympathetic nervous system typically occurring in children.

  • If one criticises MRI of the pituitary gland because of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism, one should take a close look at the sinonasal field as well.

Open access
A Chinoy Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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N B Wright Department of Paediatric Radiology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester, UK

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M Bone Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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R Padidela Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Summary

Hypokalaemia at presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis is uncommon as insulin deficiency and metabolic acidosis shifts potassium extracellularly. However, hypokalaemia is a recognised complication of the management of diabetic ketoacidosis as insulin administration and correction of metabolic acidosis shifts potassium intracellularly. We describe the case of a 9-year-old girl with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting in diabetic ketoacidosis, with severe hypokalaemia at presentation due to severe and prolonged emesis. After commencing management for her diabetic ketoacidosis, her serum sodium and osmolality increased rapidly. However, despite maximal potassium concentrations running through peripheral access, and multiple intravenous potassium ‘corrections’, her hypokalaemia persisted. Seventy two hours after presentation, she became drowsy and confused, with imaging demonstrating central pontine myelinolysis – a rare entity seldom seen in diabetic ketoacidosis management in children despite rapid shifts in serum sodium and osmolality. We review the literature associating central pontine myelinolysis with hypokalaemia and hypothesise as to how the hypokalaemia may have contributed to the development of central pontine myelinolysis. We also recommend an approach to the management of a child in diabetic ketoacidosis with hypokalaemia at presentation.

Learning points:

  • Hypokalaemia is a recognised complication of treatment of paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis that should be aggressively managed to prevent acute complications.

  • Central pontine myelinolysis is rare in children, and usually observed in the presence of rapid correction of hyponatraemia. However, there is observational evidence of an association between hypokalaemia and central pontine myelinolysis, potentially by priming the endothelial cell membrane to injury by lesser fluctuations in osmotic pressure.

  • Consider central pontine myelinolysis as a complication of the management of paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis in the presence of relevant symptoms with profound hypokalaemia and/or fluctuations in serum sodium levels.

  • We have suggested an approach to the management strategies of hypokalaemia in paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis which includes oral potassium supplements if tolerated, minimising the duration and the rate of insulin infusion and increasing the concentration of potassium intravenously (via central line if necessary).

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Danielle R Bullock Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics

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Bradley S Miller Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics

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H Brent Clark Division of Neuropathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

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Patricia M Hobday Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics

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Summary

IgG4-related hypophysitis is an important diagnostic consideration in patients with a pituitary mass or pituitary dysfunction and can initially present with headaches, visual field deficits and/or endocrine dysfunction. Isolated IgG4-related pituitary disease is rare, with most cases of IgG4-related disease involving additional organ systems. We report the case of a teenage female patient with isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis, diagnosed after initially presenting with headaches. Our patient had no presenting endocrinologic abnormalities. She was treated with surgical resection, prednisolone and rituximab with no further progression of disease and sustained normal endocrine function. This case, the youngest described patient with isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis and uniquely lacking endocrinologic abnormalities, adds to the limited reports of isolated pituitary disease. The use of rituximab for isolated pituitary disease has never been described. While IgG4-related hypophysitis has been increasingly recognized, substantial evidence concerning the appropriate treatment and follow-up of these patients is largely lacking.

Learning points:

  • IgG4-related hypophysitis most often occurs in the setting of additional organ involvement but can be an isolated finding. This diagnosis should therefore be considered in a patient presenting with pituitary abnormalities.

  • Most patients with IgG4-related hypophysitis will have abnormal pituitary function, but normal functioning does not exclude this diagnosis.

  • Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of therapy for IgG4-related disease, with other immunosuppressive regimens being reserved for refractory cases. Further research is needed to understand the effectiveness of corticosteroid-sparing regimens and whether there is utility in using these agents as first-line therapies.

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Snezana Burmazovic Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Christoph Henzen Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Lukas Brander Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland

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Luca Cioccari Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Lucerne, Switzerland
Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Prahran, Australia

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Summary

The combination of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus is unusual and poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In a patient with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology that is considered, and achieving glycaemic control remains the first course of action. However, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality suggest concurrent symptomatic diabetes insipidus. We report a rare case of concurrent manifestation of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus in a patient with a history of craniopharyngioma.

Learning points:

  • In patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology to be considered.

  • However, a history of craniopharyngioma, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and osmolality provide evidence of concurrent diabetes insipidus.

  • Therefore, if a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia, a low or low normal urinary-specific gravity and worsening polyuria despite correction of hyperglycaemia, concurrent diabetes insipidus should be sought.

Open access
Florence Gunawan Geelong University Hospital, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

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Elizabeth George
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Adam Roberts
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Summary

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment for advanced melanoma, and their use is being increasingly implicated in the development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with metastatic melanoma on combination nivolumab and ipilumimab therapy who developed concurrent hypophysitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and diabetes insipidus. He presented prior to third cycle of combination treatment with a headache, myalgias and fatigue. Biochemistry and MRI pituitary confirmed anterior pituitary dysfunction with a TSH: 0.02 mU/L (0.5–5.5 mU/L), fT4: 5.2 pmol/L (11–22 pmol/L), fT3: 4.0 pmol/L (3.2–6.4 pmol/L), cortisol (12:00 h): <9 nmol/L (74–286 nmol/L), FSH: 0.7 IU/L (1.5–9.7 IU/L), LH: <0.1 IU/L (1.8–9.2 IU/L), PRL: 1 mIU/L (90–400 mIU/L), SHBG: 34 nmol/L (19–764 nmol/L) and total testosterone: <0.4 nmol/L (9.9–27.8 nmol/L). High-dose dexamethasone (8 mg) was administered followed by hydrocortisone, thyroxine and topical testosterone replacement. Two weeks post administration of the third cycle, he became unwell with lethargy, weight loss and nocturia. Central diabetes insipidus was diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and sodium of 149 mmol/L (135–145 mmol/L). Desmopressin nasal spray was instituted with symptom resolution and normalization of serum sodium. Three weeks later, he presented again polyuric and polydipsic. His capillary glucose was 20.8 mmol/L (ketones of 2.4 mmol), low C-peptide 0.05 nmol/L (0.4–1.5 nmol/L) and HbA1c of 7.7%. T1DM was suspected, and he was commenced on an insulin infusion with rapid symptom resolution. Insulin antibodies glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), insulin antibody-2 (IA-2) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8) were negative. A follow-up MRI pituitary revealed findings consistent with recovering autoimmune hypophysitis. Immunotherapy was discontinued based on the extent of these autoimmune endocrinopathies.

Learning points:

  • The most effective regime for treatment of metastatic melanoma is combination immunotherapy with nivolumab and ipilumimab, and this therapy is associated with a high incidence of autoimmune endocrinopathies.

  • Given the high prevalence of immune-related adverse events, the threshold for functional testing should be low.

  • Traditional antibody testing may not be reliable to identify early-onset endocrinopathy.

  • Routine screening pathways have yet to be adequately validated through clinical trials.

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Ricardo A Macau Nephrology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta

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Tiago Nunes da Silva Endocrinology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal

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Joana Rego Silva Nephrology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta

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Ana Gonçalves Ferreira Endocrinology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal

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Pedro Bravo Nephrology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta

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Summary

Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI) is a rare and difficult-to-treat condition. A study in mice and two recent papers describe the use of acetazolamide in Li-NDI in 7 patients (a case report and a 6 patient series). We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and no previous history of diabetes insipidus. She was hospitalized due to a bowel obstruction and developed severe dehydration after surgery when she was water deprived. After desmopressin administration and unsuccessful thiazide and amiloride treatment, acetazolamide was administrated to control polyuria and hydroelectrolytic disorders without significant side effects. To our knowledge, this is the third publication on acetazolamide use in Li-NDI patients.

Learning points:

  • Treatment of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus might be challenging.

  • Vasopressin, amiloride and thiazide diuretics have been used in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus treatment.

  • Acetazolamide might be an option to treat lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus patients who fail to respond to standard treatment.

  • The use of acetazolamide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus must be monitored, including its effects on glomerular filtration rate.

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Ken Takeshima First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Hiroyuki Ariyasu First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Tatsuya Ishibashi First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Shintaro Kawai First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Shinsuke Uraki First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Jinsoo Koh Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Hidefumi Ito Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Takashi Akamizu First Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama,, Japan

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Summary

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease affecting muscles, the eyes and the endocrine organs. Diabetes mellitus and primary hypogonadism are endocrine manifestations typically seen in patients with DM1. Abnormalities of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis have also been reported in some DM1 patients. We present a case of DM1 with a rare combination of multiple endocrinopathies; diabetes mellitus, a combined form of primary and secondary hypogonadism, and dysfunction of the HPA axis. In the present case, diabetes mellitus was characterized by severe insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia. Glycemic control improved after modification of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin and pioglitazone. Hypogonadism was treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Notably, body composition analysis revealed increase in muscle mass and decrease in fat mass in our patient. This implies that manifestations of hypogonadism could be hidden by symptoms of myotonic dystrophy. Our patient had no symptoms associated with adrenal deficiency, so adrenal dysfunction was carefully followed up without hydrocortisone replacement therapy. In this report, we highlight the necessity for evaluation and treatment of multiple endocrinopathies in patients with DM1.

Learning points:

  • DM1 patients could be affected by a variety of multiple endocrinopathies.

  • Our patients with DM1 presented rare combinations of multiple endocrinopathies; diabetes mellitus, combined form of primary and secondary hypogonadism and dysfunction of HPA axis.

  • Testosterone treatment of hypogonadism in patients with DM1 could improve body composition.

  • The patients with DM1 should be assessed endocrine functions and treated depending on the degree of each endocrine dysfunction.

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Usman Javaid Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Vikram Lal Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Catherine Napier Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Alison Burbridge Department of Neurorehabilitation, Northumbria, Tyne & Wear NHS Trust, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

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Richard Quinton Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Institute of Genetic Medicine, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

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Hypogonadal men may experience intense vasomotor symptoms, and vasomotor sweating can occasionally be associated with profound fluid losses. We describe a 37-year-old male, who exhibited persistent hypovolaemic hypernatraemia that was challenging to treat despite a continuous high fluid input (>4–5 L/day). He was noted to have drenching sweats and normochromic anaemia. He had recent traumatic head injury, which resulted in neurocognitive dysfunction, so pituitary function tests were done which showed primary hypogonadism. After exclusion of all other possible causes of excess sweating, hypernatraemia and anaemia, a trial of testosterone therapy was instituted. Sweating dramatically ceased within hours of his first testosterone injection, hydration status normalised within days and anaemia and neurocognitive function progressively improved with continued testosterone replacement. This case demonstrates how, in a susceptible individual, hypovolaemic hypernatraemia can arise from insensible cutaneous fluid loss through eccrine sweating, mediated by vasomotor symptoms of untreated hypogonadism. Although this scenario has not been described in the literature, we felt it needed to be shared with the wider medical community because of how the diagnosis and treatment utterly transformed this patient’s functional status and outcome.

Learning points:

  • Hypogonadal men may experience intense vasomotor symptoms and vasomotor sweating can occasionally be associated with profound fluid losses.

  • Whether or not there is also hyperosmolar hypernatraemia, clinicians should always consider the possibility of underlying hypogonadism in men with normocytic anaemia and excessive sweating.

  • Androgen (testosterone) replacement in hypogonadal men can have a dramatic effect on vasomotor sweating and hot flushes.

Open access
Arshpreet Kaur Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Louisville, 550 South Jackson Street, ACB A3G11, Louisville, Kentucky, 40202, USA

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Stephen J Winters Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Louisville, 550 South Jackson Street, ACB A3G11, Louisville, Kentucky, 40202, USA

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Summary

Drugs that inhibit the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) are an exciting novel, insulin-independent treatment for diabetes that block glucose reabsorption from the proximal tubules of the kidney, leading to increased glucose excretion and lower blood glucose levels. Inhibition of SGLT2 activity also reduces sodium reabsorption, which together with glycosuria produces a mild diuretic effect with the potential for dehydration and hyperkalemia. We report on a 60-year-old man with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes treated with insulin, glimepiride, metformin and canagliflozin, who was admitted with altered mental status after a syncopal episode. He had a 1-week history of ingestion of Tums for heartburn followed by poor appetite and lethargy. Laboratory work-up showed acute kidney injury, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and parathyroid hormone-independent severe hypercalcemia of 17.4 mg/dl. DKA resolved with insulin treatment, and saline hydration led to improvement in hypercalcemia and renal function over 48 h, but was accompanied by a rapid increase in the serum sodium concentration from 129 to 162 mmol/l despite changing fluids to 0.45% saline. Urine studies were consistent with osmotic diuresis. Hypernatremia was slowly corrected with hypotonic fluids, with improvement in his mental status over the next 2 days. This is the first report of hypercalcemia associated with the use of a SLGT2 inhibitor. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, canagliflozin may predispose to hypercalcemia in patients ingesting excessive calcium because of dehydration from osmotic diuresis, with reduced calcium excretion and possible increased intestinal calcium absorption. Saline therapy and osmotic diuresis may lead to hypernatremia from electrolyte-free water loss.

Learning points

  • Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, may cause hypercalcemia in susceptible patients.

  • Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, dehydration from osmotic diuresis and increased intestinal calcium absorption play a role.

  • Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is recommended in patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors who are elderly, have established hypercalcemia, or take oral calcium supplements.

  • Saline therapy and osmotic diuresis may lead to hypernatremia from electrolyte-free water loss in susceptible patients.

Open access