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Wei Yang Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine

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David Pham Department of Radiology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California, USA

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Aren T Vierra Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine

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Sarah Azam Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine

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Dorina Gui Department of Pathology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California, USA

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John C Yoon Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine

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Summary

Ectopic ACTH-secreting pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are rare and account for less than 5% of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome cases. We describe an unusual case of metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor in a young woman presenting with unprovoked pulmonary emboli, which initially prevented the detection of the primary tumor on imaging. The source of ectopic ACTH was ultimately localized by a Gallium-DOTATATE scan, which demonstrated increased tracer uptake in a right middle lobe lung nodule and multiple liver nodules. The histological diagnosis was established based on a core biopsy of a hepatic lesion and the patient was started on a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist and a somatostatin analog. This case illustrates that hypercogulability can further aggravate the diagnostic challenges in ectopic ACTH syndrome. We discuss the literature on the current diagnosis and management strategies for ectopic ACTH syndrome.

Learning points:

  • In a young patient with concurrent hypokalemia and uncontrolled hypertension on multiple antihypertensive agents, secondary causes of hypertension should be evaluated.

  • Patients with Cushing’s syndrome can develop an acquired hypercoagulable state leading to spontaneous and postoperative venous thromboembolism.

  • Pulmonary emboli may complicate the imaging of the bronchial carcinoid tumor in ectopic ACTH syndrome.

  • Imaging with Gallium-68 DOTATATE PET/CT scan has the highest sensitivity and specificity in detecting ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors.

  • A combination of various noninvasive biochemical tests can enhance the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating Cushing’s disease from ectopic ACTH syndrome provided they have concordant results. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling remains the gold standard.

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Maria P Yavropoulou Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Christos Poulios Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

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Christoforos Foroulis Department of Thoracic Surgery, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Symeon Tournis Laboratory of Research of Musculoskeletal System ‘Th. Garofalidis’, KAT Hospital University of Athens, Greece

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Prodromos Hytiroglou Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

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Kalliopi Kotsa Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Isaak Kessisoglou 3rd Department of Surgery, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Pantelis Zebekakis Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Summary

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare form of hypophosphatemia usually caused by phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs); the biologic behavior of PMTs is under investigation. Herein we present a case of TIO with a protracted course over 12 years leading to a fatal outcome. A 39-year-old man presented with weakness in 2004 and was found to have decreased serum phosphorus, phosphaturia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Four years later he developed a painful left calf mass. The lesion was resected, but recurred causing extreme pain and dysfunction. Radiological examination showed a large cluster of soft tissue tumors affecting all the muscle compartments of the calf and a smaller lesion inside the metaphysis of the tibia. Above-knee amputation was performed. Histological examination of all lesions showed a cellular spindle cell neoplasm with variously sized vessels, wide vessel-like spaces and scattered deposits of calcified extracellular material. The tumor infiltrated skeletal muscles, subcutaneous fat and the proximal end of the fibula. The tibial lesion had identical histology. Three years after the amputation the patient presented with cough and dyspnea. Radiological examination, followed by an open biopsy, showed that there were multiple metastatic nodules of PMTs in both lungs. Shortly after the diagnosis the patient died. This case illustrates that even benign cases of PMTs may lead to a fatal outcome and the classification of PMTs into benign and malignant should be reassessed in order to correspond to its biological behavior.

Learning points:

  • PMTs, aside from having locally aggressive behavior, may metastasize and cause death

  • PMTs may behave aggressively despite ‘benign’ histological findings

  • Accurate diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia and patient management require a multidisciplinary approach

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Tiago Nunes da Silva Department of Internal Medicine, ENETS Centre of Excellence, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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(Loes) M L F van Velthuysen Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Casper H J van Eijck Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Jaap J Teunissen Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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(Hans) J Hofland Department of Internal Medicine, ENETS Centre of Excellence, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Wouter W de Herder Department of Internal Medicine, ENETS Centre of Excellence, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Summary

Non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) can present with advanced local or distant (metastatic) disease limiting the possibility of surgical cure. Several treatment options have been used in experimental neoadjuvant settings to improve the outcomes in such cases. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PPRT) using beta emitting radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been used in progressive pancreatic NETs. We report a 55-year-old female patient with a 12.8 cm pancreatic NET with significant local stomach and superior mesenteric vein compression and liver metastases. The patient underwent treatment with [177Lutetium-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) for the treatment of local and metastatic symptomatic disease. Six months after 4 cycles of 177lutetium-octreotate, resolution of the abdominal complaints was associated with a significant reduction in tumour size and the tumour was rendered operable. Histology of the tumour showed a 90% necrotic tumour with abundant hyalinized fibrosis and haemorrhage compatible with PPRT-induced radiation effects on tumour cells. This report supports that PPRT has a role in unresectable and metastatic pancreatic NET.

Learning points:

  • PRRT with 177Lu-octreotate can be considered a useful therapy for symptomatic somatostatin receptor-positive pancreatic NET.

  • The clinical benefits of PRRT with 177Lu-octreotate can be seen in the first months while tumour reduction can be seen up to a year after treatment.

  • PRRT with 177Lu-octreotate was clinically well tolerated and did not interfere with the subsequent surgical procedure.

  • PRRT with 177Lu-octreotate can result in significant tumour reduction and may improve surgical outcomes. As such, this therapy can be considered as a neoadjuvant therapy.

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Catherine Alguire Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

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Jessica Chbat Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

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Isabelle Forest Department of Psychiatry, Centre hospitalier Pierre-Le Gardeur, Terrebonne, Québec, Canada

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Ariane Godbout Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

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Isabelle Bourdeau Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

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Summary

Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. It often presents with the classic triad of headache, palpitations and generalized sweating. Although not described as a typical symptom of pheochromocytoma, anxiety is the fourth most common symptom reported by patients suffering of pheochromocytoma. We report the case of a 64 year old man who had severe anxiety and panic disorder as presenting symptoms of pheochromocytoma. After 13 years of psychiatric follow-up, the patient was diagnosed with malignant pheochromocytoma. After surgical resection of his pheochromocytoma and his hepatic metastases, the major panic attacks completely disappeared, the anxiety symptoms improved significantly and the psychiatric medications were stopped except for a very low maintenance dose of venlafaxine. We found in our cohort of 160 patients with pheochromocytoma 2 others cases of apparently benign tumors with severe anxiety that resolved after pheochromocytoma resection. These cases highlight that pheochromocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of refractory anxiety disorder.

Learning points:

  • Anxiety and panic disorder may be the main presenting symptoms of pheochromocytoma.

  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should be excluded in cases of long-term panic disorder refractory to medications since the anxiety may be secondary to a catecholamine-secreting tumor.

  • Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma leads to significant improvement of anxiety disorders.

Open access
Chiara Baratelli Dipartimento di Oncologia, Oncologia Medica

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Maria Pia Brizzi Dipartimento di Oncologia, Oncologia Medica

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Marco Tampellini Dipartimento di Oncologia, Oncologia Medica

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Giorgio Vittorio Scagliotti Dipartimento di Oncologia, Oncologia Medica

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Adriano Priola SCDU Radiologia

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Massimo Terzolo Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Medicina Interna, Università di Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San Luigi Gonzaga, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano, Italy

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Anna Pia Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Medicina Interna, Università di Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San Luigi Gonzaga, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano, Italy

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Alfredo Berruti Dipartimento di Specialità Medico-Chirurgiche, Scienze Radiologiche e Sanità Pubblica Università di Brescia, Oncologia Medica, Azienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy

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Summary

Insulinoma is a rare form of insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cell neuroendocrine (NE) tumor. The medical treatment of the malignant NE disease of the pancreas deeply changed in the last years, thanks to the introduction of new target molecules, as everolimus. Even if the exact mechanism is not actually known, one of the side effects of everolimus, hyperglycemia, has been demonstrated to be useful to contrast the typical hypoglycemia of the insulinoma. We report the case of a patient with a metastatic malignant insulinoma treated with intermittent everolimus, obtaining an important improvement in the quality of life; this suggests the necessity of preclinical studies to analyze the cellular pathways involved in insulin-independent gluconeogenesis.

Learning points

  • Effect of somatostatin analogs is long-lasting in the control of functioning NE tumors.

  • Persistent everolimus control of hypoglycemia despite serum insulin levels and disease progression.

  • Open issue: are disease progression and the increase in serum markers the only valid criteria to reject a treatment?

Open access