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Open access

N Siddique, R Durcan, S Smyth, T Kyaw Tun, S Sreenan, and J H McDermott

Summary

We present three cases of acute diabetic neuropathy and highlight a potentially underappreciated link between tightening of glycaemic control and acute neuropathies in patients with diabetes. Case 1: A 56-year-old male with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was commenced on basal-bolus insulin. He presented 6 weeks later with a diffuse painful sensory neuropathy and postural hypotension. He was diagnosed with treatment-induced neuropathy (TIN, insulin neuritis) and obtained symptomatic relief from pregabalin. Case 2: A 67-year-old male with T2DM and chronic hyperglycaemia presented with left lower limb pain, weakness and weight loss shortly after achieving target glycaemia with oral anti-hyperglycaemics. Neurological examination and neuro-electrophysiological studies suggested diabetic lumbosacral radiculo-plexus neuropathy (DLPRN, diabetic amyotrophy). Pain and weakness resolved over time. Case 3: A 58-year-old male was admitted with blurred vision diplopia and complete ptosis of the right eye, with intact pupillary reflexes, shortly after intensification of glucose-lowering treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor as adjunct to metformin. He was diagnosed with a pupil-sparing third nerve palsy secondary to diabetic mononeuritis which improved over time. While all three acute neuropathies have been previously well described, all are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion as they are essentially a diagnosis of exclusion. Interestingly, all three of our cases are linked by the development of acute neuropathy following a significant improvement in glycaemic control. This phenomenon is well described in TIN, but not previously highlighted in other acute neuropathies.

Learning points:

  • A link between acute tightening of glycaemic control and acute neuropathies has not been well described in literature.
  • Clinicians caring for patients with diabetes who develop otherwise unexplained neurologic symptoms following a tightening of glycaemic control should consider the possibility of an acute diabetic neuropathy.
  • Early recognition of these neuropathies can obviate the need for detailed and expensive investigations and allow for early institution of appropriate pain-relieving medications.
Open access

Snezana Burmazovic, Christoph Henzen, Lukas Brander, and Luca Cioccari

Summary

The combination of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus is unusual and poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In a patient with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology that is considered, and achieving glycaemic control remains the first course of action. However, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality suggest concurrent symptomatic diabetes insipidus. We report a rare case of concurrent manifestation of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and central diabetes insipidus in a patient with a history of craniopharyngioma.

Learning points:

  • In patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with polyuria and polydipsia, poor glycaemic control is usually the first aetiology to be considered.
  • However, a history of craniopharyngioma, severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia and discordance between urine-specific gravity and osmolality provide evidence of concurrent diabetes insipidus.
  • Therefore, if a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with severe hypernatraemia, hyperglycaemia, a low or low normal urinary-specific gravity and worsening polyuria despite correction of hyperglycaemia, concurrent diabetes insipidus should be sought.
Open access

Joseph Cerasuolo and Anthony Izzo

Summary

Acute hyperglycemia has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in animal models. There is growing appreciation of the numerous effects of hyperglycemia on neuronal function as well as blood–brain barrier function. In humans, hypoglycemia is well known to cause cognitive deficits acutely, but hyperglycemia has been less well studied. We present a case of selective neurocognitive deficits in the setting of acute hyperglycemia. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an episode of acute hyperglycemia in the setting of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus precipitated by steroid use. He was managed with insulin therapy and discharged home, and later, presented with complaints of memory impairment. Deficits included impairment in his declarative and working memory, to the point of significant impairment in his overall functioning. The patient had no structural lesions on MRI imaging of the brain or other systemic illnesses to explain his specific deficits. We suggest that his acute hyperglycemia may have caused neurological injury, and may be responsible for our patient’s memory complaints.

Learning points:

  • Acute hyperglycemia has been associated with poor outcomes in several different central nervous system injuries including cerebrovascular accident and hypoxic injury.
  • Hyperglycemia is responsible for accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the brain, resulting in advanced glycosylated end products and a proinflammatory response that may lead to cellular injury.
  • Further research is needed to define the impact of both acute and chronic hyperglycemia on cognitive impairment and memory.
Open access

Swapna Talluri, Raghu Charumathi, Muhammad Khan, and Kerri Kissell

Summary

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, CPM is rarely seen in diabetics. This is a case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia. A 45-year-old non-smoking and non-alcoholic African American male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stage V chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism presented with a two-week history of intermittent episodes of gait imbalance, slurred speech and inappropriate laughter. Physical examination including complete neurological assessment and fundoscopic examination were unremarkable. Laboratory evaluation was significant for serum sodium: 140 mmol/L, potassium: 3.9 mmol/L, serum glucose: 178 mg/dL and serum osmolality: 317 mosmol/kg. His ambulatory blood sugars fluctuated between 100 and 600 mg/dL in the six weeks prior to presentation, without any significant or rapid changes in his corrected serum sodium or other electrolyte levels. MRI brain demonstrated a symmetric lesion in the central pons with increased signal intensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted images. After neurological consultation and MRI confirmation, the patient was diagnosed with CPM secondary to hyperosmolar hyperglycemia. Eight-week follow-up with neurology was notable for near-complete resolution of symptoms. This case report highlights the importance of adequate blood glucose control in diabetics. Physicians should be aware of complications like CPM, which can present atypically in diabetics and is only diagnosed in the presence of a high index of clinical suspicion.

Learning points:

  • Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is rarely seen in diabetics. This case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia highlights the importance of adequate blood glucose control in diabetics.
  • Physicians should be aware of complications like CPM in diabetics.
  • CPM can present atypically in diabetics and is only diagnosed in the presence of a high index of clinical suspicion.