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S Chew Sue Mei Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrine Clinic, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

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N Pritchard Department of Renal Medicine, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

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H Grayton Cambridge Genomics Laboratory, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

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I Simonicova Cambridge Genomics Laboratory, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

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S M Park Department of Clinical Genetics, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

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A I Adler Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrine Clinic, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK
University of Oxford Diabetes Trials Unit, Oxford, UK

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Summary

Kabuki syndrome is a genetic disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delays, and multisystem congenital anomalies. Endocrine complications such as premature thelarche and short stature are common, whereas disorders of glycaemic control are less frequent. We describe a 23-year-old white female referred to the diabetes clinic for hyperglycaemia during haemodialysis. She was subsequently diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome based on characteristic clinical features, confirmed by detecting a heterozygous pathogenic variant in KMT2D. She was known to have had multiple congenital anomalies at birth, including complex congenital heart disease and a single dysplastic ectopic kidney, and received a cadaveric transplanted kidney at the age of 13. She had hyperglycaemia consistent with post-transplant diabetes mellitus (DM) and was started on insulin. Examination at the time revealed truncal obesity. She developed acute graft rejection and graft failure 14 months post-transplant and she was started on haemodialysis. Her blood glucose levels normalised post-graft explant, but she was hyperglycaemic again during haemodialysis at the age of 23. Given her clinical phenotype, negative diabetes antibodies and normal pancreas on ultrasound, she was assumed to have type 2 DM and achieved good glycaemic control with gliclazide.

Learning points

  • Involve clinical genetics early in the investigative pathway of sick neonates born with multiple congenital anomalies to establish a diagnosis to direct medical care.

  • Consider the possibility of Kabuki syndrome (KS) in the differential diagnoses in any neonate with normal karyotyping or microarray analysis and with multiple congenital anomalies (especially cardiac, renal, or skeletal), dysmorphic facial features, transient neonatal hypoglycaemia and failure to thrive.

  • Consider the possibility of diabetes as an endocrine complication in KS patients who are obese or who have autoimmune disorders.

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Presoon Kuruvilla Department of Internal Medicine, Caritas Hospital, Kerala, India

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Angel John Department of Internal Medicine, Caritas Hospital, Kerala, India

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Ashith Murali Department of Internal Medicine, Caritas Hospital, Kerala, India

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Summary

Insulin autoantibody syndrome (IAS) or Hirata’s disease is a rare condition characterized by recurrent fasting hypoglycaemic and postprandial hyperglycaemic episodes. Insulin autoantibodies are diagnostic for the condition. Hirata’s disease has been seen to be associated with other autoimmune conditions. Vitiligo is a common depigmentation disorder whose exact cause is unknown but thought to have an autoimmune aetiology. Although autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of both the diseases, association between the two has not been reported till date. In our case, a 72-year-old Indian woman with vitiligo for the past 30 years presented with recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycaemia. She was found to have very high levels of fasting insulin, C-peptide, and insulin antibody and was diagnosed with IAS. Thus, we conclude that the clinical spectrum of Hirata’s disease has to be taken as more heterogenous than previously assumed.

Learning points

  • Insulin autoantibody syndrome (IAS) or Hirata’s disease is a rare condition characterized by recurrent fasting hypoglycaemic and postprandial hyperglycaemic episodes in which insulin plays a major role.

  • Insulin autoantibodies are diagnostic for IAS. The endocrine insulin and its autoantibodies play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  • Vitiligo is a common depigmentation disorder whose exact cause is unknown but thought to have an autoimmune aetiology.

  • IAS and vitiligo are two diseases with autoimmune aetiology which has been seen to be associated with each other (the first case to be reported).

  • The clinical spectrum of Hirata’s disease has to be taken as more heterogenous than previously assumed.

  • On dealing with autoimmune diseases, we should also keep in mind about other diseases with autoimmune pathogenesis.

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Hakan Ozoran Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Clinical Medical School, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Green Templeton College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Phoenix Guwa Clinical Medical School, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Green Templeton College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Pam Dyson Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Garry D Tan Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK

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Fredrik Karpe Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK

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Summary

The use of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) reduces insulin requirements in insulinopenic states such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the use of potentially ketogenic diets in this clinical setting is contentious and the mechanisms underlying their impact on glycaemic control are poorly understood. We report a case of a patient with a late-onset classic presentation of T1DM who adopted a very low-carbohydrate diet and completely avoided insulin therapy for 18 months, followed by tight glycaemic control on minimal insulin doses. The observations suggest that adherence to an LCD in T1DM, implemented soon after diagnosis, can facilitate an improved and less variable glycaemic profile in conjunction with temporary remission in some individuals. Importantly, these changes occurred in a manner that did not lead to a significant increase in blood ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) concentrations. This case highlights the need for further research in the form of randomised controlled trials to assess the long-term safety and sustainability of carbohydrate-reduced diets in T1DM.

Learning points

  • This case highlights the potential of low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) to mediate improved diabetes control and possible remission soon after diagnosis.

  • Could carbohydrate-reduced diets implemented early in the course of T1DM delay the decline in endogenous insulin production?

  • Adherence to an LCD in T1DM can facilitate an improved and less variable glycaemic profile.

  • This case suggests that LCDs in T1DM may not be associated with a concerning supraphysiological ketonaemia.

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Khalifah A Aldawsari Department of Pediatrics, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA

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Claudia Mattos Department of Pediatrics, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA

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Danyal M Khan The Heart Institute, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA

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Omar Beckett Department of Endocrinology, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA

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Pedro Pagan Department of Endocrinology, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA

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Summary

Dumping syndrome is a rare but potentially serious condition that causes inappropriate postprandial hyperinsulinemia leading to hypoglycemia in children following gastrointestinal surgeries. While dietary modifications are often the first line of treatment, severe cases may require pharmacological intervention to prevent severe hypoglycemia. We present a case of successful treatment of dumping syndrome with diazoxide. A 2-month-old infant with left hypoplastic heart syndrome who underwent single ventricle palliation pathway and developed feeding intolerance that required Nissen fundoplication. Postprandial hypoglycemia was detected following the procedure, with glucose level down to 12 mg/dL, and the diagnosis of dumping syndrome was established. The patient was successfully managed with diazoxide, which effectively resolved postprandial hypoglycemia without any major adverse events. The patient was eventfully weaned off the medication at the age of 5 months. This case highlights the potential role of diazoxide in the management of pediatric patients with postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia secondary to dumping syndrome.

Learning points

  • Dumping syndrome is a possible complication of gastrointestinal surgeries and should be suspected in children with abnormal glucose levels.

  • Postprandial hyperglycemia should be monitored closely for significant subsequent hypoglycemia.

  • Diazoxide might be considered as part of the treatment plan for dumping syndrome.

Open access