Browse

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items

Aisha A Tepede Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Aisha A Tepede in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
James Welch Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by James Welch in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Maya Lee Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Maya Lee in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Adel Mandl Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Adel Mandl in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sunita K Agarwal Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Sunita K Agarwal in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Naris Nilubol National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Naris Nilubol in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Dhaval Patel National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Dhaval Patel in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Craig Cochran Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Craig Cochran in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
William F Simonds Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by William F Simonds in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lee S Weinstein Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Lee S Weinstein in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Abhishek Jha Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Abhishek Jha in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Corina Millo Clinical Center PET Department (CC PET), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Corina Millo in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Karel Pacak Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Karel Pacak in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Jenny E Blau Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

Search for other papers by Jenny E Blau in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is extremely rare. The incidence is reported as less than 2%. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with familial MEN1 who was found to have unilateral PHEO. Although the patient was normotensive and asymptomatic, routine screening imaging with CT demonstrated bilateral adrenal masses. The left adrenal mass grew from 2.5 to 3.9 cm over 4 years with attenuation values of 9 Hounsfield units (HU) pre-contrast and 15 HU post-contrast washout. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated an adrenergic biochemical phenotype. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy demonstrated bilateral adrenal uptake. In contrast, 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT demonstrated unilateral left adrenal uptake (28.7 standardized uptake value (SUV)) and physiologic right adrenal uptake. The patient underwent an uneventful left adrenalectomy with pathology consistent for PHEO. Post-operatively, he had biochemical normalization. A review of the literature suggests that adrenal tumors >2 cm may be at higher risk for pheochromocytoma in patients with MEN1. Despite a lack of symptoms related to catecholamine excess, enlarging adrenal nodules should be biochemically screened for PHEO. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT may be beneficial for localization in these patients.

Learning points:

  • 18F-FDOPA PET/CT is a beneficial imaging modality for identifying pheochromocytoma in MEN1 patients.

  • Adrenal adenomas should undergo routine biochemical workup for PHEO in MEN1 and can have serious peri-operative complications if not recognized, given that MEN1 patients undergo frequent surgical interventions.

  • MEN1 is implicated in the tumorigenesis of PHEO in this patient.

Open access
Eka Melson Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

Search for other papers by Eka Melson in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sidra Amir University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

Search for other papers by Sidra Amir in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lisa Shepherd Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

Search for other papers by Lisa Shepherd in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Samina Kauser University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

Search for other papers by Samina Kauser in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Bethan Freestone University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

Search for other papers by Bethan Freestone in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Punith Kempegowda University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

Search for other papers by Punith Kempegowda in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Although pheochromocytoma classically presents with headaches, palpitations and paroxysmal hypertension, atypical presentations such as cardiomyopathy, stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage have been infrequently documented. We present in this case report, an uncommon presentation of pheochromocytoma with myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries (MINOCA). A 79-year-old woman presented with central crushing chest pain radiating to left arm associated with headache, palpitations, sweating and difficulty in breathing. For 2 years, she experienced brief episodes of headache, tinnitus, dizziness, palpitations, and sweating that spontaneously resolved. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for high blood pressure (210/105 mmHg). Her electrocardiogram showed T wave inversions from V1 to V6 and elevated troponins (774 ng/L at baseline and 932 ng/L 3 h from baseline (normal <16 ng/L) in keeping with a diagnosis of non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. Patient was hence treated as myocardial infarction with normal coronaries (MINOCA). Despite appropriate treatment for MINOCA, she continued to experience episodic headaches, palpitations, dizziness and erratic blood pressures (particularly severe hypertension shortly after beta-blocker administration). Further investigations revealed raised urine noradrenaline of 4724 nmol/24 h (<554 nmol/24 h) and urine adrenaline of 92863 nmol/24 h (<77 nmol/24 h). Computerised tomography demonstrated a well-defined rounded mass in right adrenal gland morphological of pheochromocytoma. She underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy with histology confirming pheochromocytoma. This case highlights the importance of thorough investigation for the underlying cause for MINOCA. In patients with unexplained erratic blood pressure control, pheochromocytoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

Learning points:

  • Pheochromocytoma is rare tumour that often presents with non-specific symptoms.

  • It is important to investigate underlying cause of MINOCA.

  • Thorough history is the key to diagnosis.

Open access
Natasha Shrikrishnapalasuriyar Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, UK

Search for other papers by Natasha Shrikrishnapalasuriyar in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mirena Noyvirt Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, UK

Search for other papers by Mirena Noyvirt in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Philip Evans Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, UK

Search for other papers by Philip Evans in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Bethan Gibson Department of Intensive Care, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, UK

Search for other papers by Bethan Gibson in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Elin Foden Department of Intensive Care, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, UK

Search for other papers by Elin Foden in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Atul Kalhan Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, UK

Search for other papers by Atul Kalhan in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a presumed allergic reaction to a single dose of amoxicillin given for a suspected upper respiratory tract infection. She complained of chest tightness although there was no wheeze or stridor. On examination, she was pyrexial, tachycardic, hypertensive and had a diffuse mottled rash on her lower limbs. Her initial investigations showed raised inflammatory markers. She was treated in the intensive care for a presumed anaphylactic reaction with an underlying sepsis. Further investigations including CT head and CSF examination were unremarkable; however, a CT abdomen showed a 10 cm heterogeneous right adrenal mass. Based on review by the endocrine team, a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma crisis was made, which was subsequently confirmed on 24-h urinary metanephrine measurement. An emergency adrenalectomy was considered although she was deemed unfit for surgery. Despite intensive medical management, her conditioned deteriorated and she died secondary to multi-organ failure induced by pheochromocytoma crisis.

Learning points:

  • Pheochromocytoma have relatively higher prevalence in autopsy series (0.05–1%) suggestive of a diagnosis, which is often missed.

  • Pheochromocytoma crisis is an endocrine emergency characterized by hemodynamic instability induced by surge of catecholamines often precipitated by trauma and medications (β blockers, general anesthetic agents, ephedrine and steroids).

  • Pheochromocytoma crisis can mimic acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic or septic shock.

  • Livedo reticularis can be a rare although significant cutaneous marker of underlying pheochromocytoma crisis.

Open access
Catherine Alguire Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Search for other papers by Catherine Alguire in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jessica Chbat Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Search for other papers by Jessica Chbat in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Isabelle Forest Department of Psychiatry, Centre hospitalier Pierre-Le Gardeur, Terrebonne, Québec, Canada

Search for other papers by Isabelle Forest in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ariane Godbout Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Search for other papers by Ariane Godbout in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Isabelle Bourdeau Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Research Center (CRCHUM), Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Search for other papers by Isabelle Bourdeau in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. It often presents with the classic triad of headache, palpitations and generalized sweating. Although not described as a typical symptom of pheochromocytoma, anxiety is the fourth most common symptom reported by patients suffering of pheochromocytoma. We report the case of a 64 year old man who had severe anxiety and panic disorder as presenting symptoms of pheochromocytoma. After 13 years of psychiatric follow-up, the patient was diagnosed with malignant pheochromocytoma. After surgical resection of his pheochromocytoma and his hepatic metastases, the major panic attacks completely disappeared, the anxiety symptoms improved significantly and the psychiatric medications were stopped except for a very low maintenance dose of venlafaxine. We found in our cohort of 160 patients with pheochromocytoma 2 others cases of apparently benign tumors with severe anxiety that resolved after pheochromocytoma resection. These cases highlight that pheochromocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of refractory anxiety disorder.

Learning points:

  • Anxiety and panic disorder may be the main presenting symptoms of pheochromocytoma.

  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should be excluded in cases of long-term panic disorder refractory to medications since the anxiety may be secondary to a catecholamine-secreting tumor.

  • Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma leads to significant improvement of anxiety disorders.

Open access
R T Casey Departments of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Search for other papers by R T Casey in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
B G Challis Departments of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Search for other papers by B G Challis in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
D Pitfield Departments of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Search for other papers by D Pitfield in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
R M Mahroof Departments of Anaesthetics

Search for other papers by R M Mahroof in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
N Jamieson Departments of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery

Search for other papers by N Jamieson in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
C J Bhagra Departments of Cardiology, Cambridge University NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

Search for other papers by C J Bhagra in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A Vuylsteke Critical Care Unit

Search for other papers by A Vuylsteke in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
S J Pettit Advanced Heart Failure Unit, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

Search for other papers by S J Pettit in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
K C Chatterjee Departments of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Search for other papers by K C Chatterjee in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

A phaeochromocytoma (PC) is a rare, catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumour arising from the adrenal medulla. Presenting symptoms of this rare tumour are highly variable but life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction can occur secondary to catecholamine-induced hypertension or hypotension and subsequent cardiovascular collapse. High levels of circulating catecholamines can induce an acute stress cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Recent studies have focused on early diagnosis and estimation of the prevalence of acute stress cardiomyopathy in patients with PC, but very little is reported about management of these complex cases. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old lady who presented with an acute Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy and catecholamine crisis, caused by an occult left-sided 5 cm PC. The initial presenting crisis manifested with symptoms of severe headache and abdominal pain, triggered by a respiratory tract infection. On admission to hospital, the patient rapidly deteriorated, developing respiratory failure, cardiogenic shock and subsequent cardiovascular collapse due to further exacerbation of the catecholamine crisis caused by a combination of opiates and intravenous corticosteroid. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular apical hypokinesia and ballooning, with an estimated left ventricular ejection fraction of 10–15%. Herein, we outline the early stabilisation period, preoperative optimisation and intraoperative management, providing anecdotal guidance for the management of this rare life-threatening complication of PC.

Learning points:

  • A diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma should be considered in patients presenting with acute cardiomyopathy or cardiogenic shock without a clear ischaemic or valvular aetiology.

  • Catecholamine crisis is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires cross-disciplinary expertise and management to ensure the best clinical outcome.

  • After initial resuscitation, treatment of acute catecholamine-induced stress cardiomyopathy requires careful introduction of alpha-blockade followed by beta-blockade if necessary to manage β-receptor-mediated tachycardia.

  • Prolonged α-adrenergic receptor stimulation by high levels of circulating catecholamines precipitates arterial vasoconstriction and intravascular volume contraction, which can further exacerbate hypotension. Invasive pressure monitoring can aid management of intravascular volume in these complex patients.

Open access
Kohei Saitoh Departments of Diabetes and Endocrinology

Search for other papers by Kohei Saitoh in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Takako Yonemoto Departments of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Medical Genetics, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan

Search for other papers by Takako Yonemoto in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Takeshi Usui Medical Genetics, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan

Search for other papers by Takeshi Usui in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kazuhiro Takekoshi Division of Sports Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan

Search for other papers by Kazuhiro Takekoshi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Makoto Suzuki Departments of Pathology

Search for other papers by Makoto Suzuki in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yoshiharu Nakashima Departments of Urology, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan

Search for other papers by Yoshiharu Nakashima in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Koji Yoshimura Departments of Urology, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan

Search for other papers by Koji Yoshimura in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rieko Kosugi Departments of Diabetes and Endocrinology

Search for other papers by Rieko Kosugi in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tatsuo Ogawa Departments of Diabetes and Endocrinology

Search for other papers by Tatsuo Ogawa in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Tatsuhide Inoue Departments of Diabetes and Endocrinology

Search for other papers by Tatsuhide Inoue in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare tumours with a heterogeneous genetic background. Up to 40% of apparently sporadic PCC/PGL cases carry 1 of the 12 gene germline mutations conferring genetic susceptibility to PCC/PGL. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, TMEM127 is one of the rare responsible genes for PCC/PGL. Here we report the case of a patient with familial PCC having a novel TMEM127 variant (c.119C > T, p.S40F). In silico prediction analysis to evaluate the functional significance of this variant suggested that it is a disease-causing variant. A PCC on the left side was considered to be the dominant lesion, and unilateral adrenalectomy was performed. The histopathologic findings were consistent with benign PCC. A loss of heterogeneity of the TMEM127 variant was detected in the surgically removed tumour.

Learning points:

  • c.119C > T (p.S40F) is a novel TMEM127 variant that can cause pheochromocytoma.

  • The tumour showed loss of heterozygosity of this TMEM127 variant.

  • The clinical phenotype of this mutation is putative bilateral pheochromocytoma in the 4th decade.

  • Unilateral adrenalectomy may be performed as the initial surgery in such cases.

Open access
N Atapattu Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Search for other papers by N Atapattu in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
K A C P Imalke General Hospital, Matara, Sri Lanka

Search for other papers by K A C P Imalke in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
M Madarasinghe General Hospital, Matara, Sri Lanka

Search for other papers by M Madarasinghe in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A Lamahewage General Hospital, Matara, Sri Lanka

Search for other papers by A Lamahewage in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
K S H de Silva Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Search for other papers by K S H de Silva in
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Summary

Children rarely present with phaeochromocytoma. Their presentation differs from that of adults. The classic triad of sweating, headache and palpitation may not always present in children with phaeochromocytoma. In this study, we present a 6-year-old girl who came to us with polyuria and polydipsia for evaluation of suspected diabetes insipidus. She gave a clear history of increased sweating in the recent past. On clinical examination, she was noted to have high blood pressure. Subsequent investigations revealed a phaeochromocytoma. Her polyuria and hypertension resolved immediately after the surgery. We did not have the facilities to arrange for genetic tests; however, the patient and the family members are under follow-up for other associated conditions.

Learning points

  • Polyuria and polydipsia are rare symptoms of phaeochromocytoma.

  • Complete physical examination prevented unnecessary investigations for polyuria and led to a correct diagnosis.

  • Classic features are not always necessary for diagnostic evaluation of rare diseases.

Open access