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Raku Son Department of Nephrology, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Masahiko Nagahama Department of Nephrology, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Fumiaki Tanemoto Department of Nephrology, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Yugo Ito Department of Nephrology, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Fumika Taki Department of Nephrology, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Ryosuke Tsugitomi Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Thoracic Center, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Masaaki Nakayama Department of Nephrology, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Summary

The etiology of hyponatremia is assessed based on urine osmolality and sodium. We herein describe a 35-year-old Asian man with pulmonary tuberculosis and perforated duodenal ulcer who presented with hyponatremia with hourly fluctuating urine osmolality ranging from 100 to 600 mosmol/kg, which resembled urine osmolality observed in typical polydipsia and SIADH simultaneously. Further review revealed correlation of body temperature and urine osmolality. Since fever is a known non-osmotic stimulus of ADH secretion, we theorized that hyponatremia in this patient was due to transient ADH secretion due to fever. In our case, empiric exogenous glucocorticoid suppressed transient non-osmotic ADH secretion and urine osmolality showed highly variable concentrations. Transient ADH secretion-related hyponatremia may be underrecognized due to occasional empiric glucocorticoid administration in patients with critical illnesses. Repeatedly monitoring of urine chemistries and interpretation of urine chemistries with careful review of non-osmotic stimuli of ADH including fever is crucial in recognition of this etiology.

Learning points:

  • Hourly fluctuations in urine osmolality can be observed in patients with fever, which is a non-osmotic stimulant of ADH secretion.

  • Repeated monitoring of urine chemistries aids in the diagnosis of the etiology underlying hyponatremia, including fever, in patients with transient ADH secretion.

  • Glucocorticoid administration suppresses ADH secretion and improves hyponatremia even in the absence of adrenal insufficiency; the etiology of hyponatremia should be determined carefully in these patients.

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Charlotte S Schömig Department of Pediatrics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

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Marie-Ève Robinson Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Canada

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Julia E von Oettingen Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Canada

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Summary

Congenital hypothyroidism requires prompt treatment to prevent adverse health outcomes. Poor intestinal levothyroxine absorption can complicate management. We present a case of a term female newborn with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) requiring subtotal ileum resection. Congenital hypothyroidism was diagnosed by newborn screening. Treatment was complicated by intestinal malabsorption of levothyroxine. Intravenous levothyroxine substitution restored euthyroidism and supraphysiologic PO doses subsequently maintained a euthyroid state. After several months, the required levothyroxine dose was weaned down to typical recommended dosing. In conclusion, small bowel resection secondary to NEC may lead to malabsorption of oral levothyroxine. An intravenous levothyroxine dose of approximately 50% typical PO dosing is effective in providing rapid normalization of free T4 and TSH. High PO doses may be required to maintain euthyroidism. Close thyroid function monitoring and immediate therapy adjustment are essential as the individual absorption may vary widely. Normal absorption levels may be regained due to adaption of the neonatal intestines.

Learning points:

  • In neonates with malabsorption after ileum resection intravenous levothyroxine replacement should be used to provide normalization of free T4 and TSH.

  • Very high doses of up to 500% usual oral levothyroxine may be required to maintain euthyroidism. The estimated degree of malabsorption can be used to determine the initial dose.

  • Close thyroid function monitoring and immediate therapy adjustment are essential as the absorption and intestinal adaption may vary widely.

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Jerena Manoharan Department of Visceral Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Caroline L Lopez Department of Visceral Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Karl Hackmann Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Clinical Genetics, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 7401307, Dresden, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden, Germany, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Dresden, Germany

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Max B Albers Department of Visceral Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Anika Pehl Department of Pathology, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Peter H Kann Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Emily P Slater Department of Visceral Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Evelin Schröck Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Clinical Genetics, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 7401307, Dresden, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden, Germany, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Dresden, Germany

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Detlef K Bartsch Department of Visceral Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse35043, Marburg, Germany

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Summary

We report about a young female who developed an unusual and an aggressive phenotype of the MEN1 syndrome characterized by the development of a pHPT, malignant non-functioning pancreatic and duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasias, a pituitary adenoma, a non-functioning adrenal adenoma and also a malignant jejunal NET at the age of 37 years. Initial Sanger sequencing could not detect a germline mutation of the MEN1 gene, but next generation sequencing and MPLA revealed a deletion of the MEN1 gene ranging between 7.6 and 25.9 kb. Small intestine neuroendocrine neoplasias (SI-NENs) are currently not considered to be a part of the phenotype of the MEN1-syndrome. In our patient the SI-NENs were detected during follow-up imaging on Ga68-Dotatoc PET/CT and could be completely resected. Although SI-NENs are extremely rare, these tumors should also be considered in MEN1 patients. Whether an aggressive phenotype or the occurrence of SI-NENs in MEN1 are more likely associated with large deletions of the gene warrants further investigation.

Learning points

  • Our patient presents an extraordinary course of disease.

  • Although SI-NENs are extremely rare, these tumors should also be considered in MEN1 patients, besides the typical MEN1 associated tumors.

  • This case reports indicate that in some cases conventional mutation analysis of MEN1 patients should be supplemented by the search for larger gene deletions with modern techniques, if no germline mutation could be identified by Sanger sequencing.

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