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Open access

Yang Timothy Du, Angus Rutter and Jui T Ho

Summary

A 40-year-old man with achondroplasia presented with symptoms of hypogonadism, low libido and gynaecomastia. He was found to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis showed SRY-positive 46, XX disorder of sex development (DSD). He was tested to have the common activating mutation of the FGFR3 gene implicated in achondroplasia, indicating that he had the two rare conditions independently, with an extremely low incidence of 1 in 400 million. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of an individual having these two rare conditions concurrently. This case highlights that individuals with achondroplasia should have normal sexual development, and in those presenting with incomplete sexual maturation or symptoms of hypogonadism should prompt further evaluation. We also propose a plausible link between achondroplasia and 46, XX DSD through the intricate interactions between the SRY, SOX9 and FGFR9 gene pathways.

Learning points:

  • The SOX9 and FGF9 genes, which are upregulated by the SRY gene, are important in both sex determination in the embryo, as well as endochondral bone growth.

  • Patients with achondroplasia should have normal sexual development and function in the absence of other confounding factors.

  • Patients with achondroplasia who present with symptoms and signs of abnormal sexual development and/or hypogonadism should be appropriately investigated for other causes.

Open access

Adam R Puchalski and Inder J Chopra

Summary

Radioiodine (131I) is a critical component in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. We recently saw a patient with thyroid cancer who was hesitant to take 131I treatment because he had previously encountered an allergic reaction to administration of iodine-containing radiocontrast agent for computed tomography (CT) scanning. We were able to administer 131I treatment after discussion that his anaphylactic reaction was not due to iodine and that radioiodine (131I) treatment is unlikely to cause a reaction in the patient.

Learning points

  • An allergy to iodine itself does not exist.

  • When patients claim that they have an ‘iodine allergy’, ask them what substances they are allergic to and what kind of reaction occurred during use of such substances.

  • Radioactive iodine is not a contraindication for patients who claim an ‘allergy to iodine’.