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Aisha A Tepede Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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James Welch Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Maya Lee Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Adel Mandl Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Sunita K Agarwal Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Naris Nilubol National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Dhaval Patel National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Craig Cochran Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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William F Simonds Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Lee S Weinstein Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Abhishek Jha Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Corina Millo Clinical Center PET Department (CC PET), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Karel Pacak Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Jenny E Blau Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK)

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Summary

Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is extremely rare. The incidence is reported as less than 2%. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with familial MEN1 who was found to have unilateral PHEO. Although the patient was normotensive and asymptomatic, routine screening imaging with CT demonstrated bilateral adrenal masses. The left adrenal mass grew from 2.5 to 3.9 cm over 4 years with attenuation values of 9 Hounsfield units (HU) pre-contrast and 15 HU post-contrast washout. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated an adrenergic biochemical phenotype. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy demonstrated bilateral adrenal uptake. In contrast, 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT demonstrated unilateral left adrenal uptake (28.7 standardized uptake value (SUV)) and physiologic right adrenal uptake. The patient underwent an uneventful left adrenalectomy with pathology consistent for PHEO. Post-operatively, he had biochemical normalization. A review of the literature suggests that adrenal tumors >2 cm may be at higher risk for pheochromocytoma in patients with MEN1. Despite a lack of symptoms related to catecholamine excess, enlarging adrenal nodules should be biochemically screened for PHEO. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT may be beneficial for localization in these patients.

Learning points:

  • 18F-FDOPA PET/CT is a beneficial imaging modality for identifying pheochromocytoma in MEN1 patients.

  • Adrenal adenomas should undergo routine biochemical workup for PHEO in MEN1 and can have serious peri-operative complications if not recognized, given that MEN1 patients undergo frequent surgical interventions.

  • MEN1 is implicated in the tumorigenesis of PHEO in this patient.

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Teresa M Canteros Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Italinao de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Valeria De Miguel Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Italinao de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Patricia Fainstein-Day Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Italinao de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Summary

Severe Cushing syndrome (SCS) is considered an emergency that requires immediate treatment to lower serum cortisol levels. Fluconazole may be considered an alternative treatment in Cushing syndrome when ketoconazole is not tolerated or unavailable. We report a 39-year-old woman with a history of partial pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a periampullary neuroendocrine tumor with locoregional extension. Three years after surgery, she developed liver metastases and was started on 120 mg of lanreotide/month, despite which, liver metastases progressed in the following 6 months. The patient showed extreme fatigue, muscle weakness, delirium, moon face, hirsutism and severe proximal weakness. Laboratory tests showed anemia, hyperglycemia and severe hypokalemia. 24-h urinary free cortisol: 2152 nmol/day (reference range (RR): <276), morning serum cortisol 4883.4 nmol/L (RR: 138–690), ACTH 127.3 pmol/L (RR: 2.2–10). She was diagnosed with ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). On admission, she presented with acute upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and hemodynamic instability. Intravenous fluconazole 400 mg/day was started. After 48 h, her mental state improved and morning cortisol decreased by 25%. The dose was titrated to 600 mg/day which resulted in a 55% decrease in cortisol levels in 1 week, but then had to be decreased to 400 mg/day because transaminase levels increased over 3 times the upper normal level. After 18 days of treatment, hemodynamic stability, lower cortisol levels and better overall clinical status enabled successful bilateral adrenalectomy. This case report shows that intravenous fluconazole effectively decreased cortisol levels in SCS due to EAS.

Learning points:

  • Severe Cushing syndrome can be effectively treated with fluconazole to achieve a significant improvement of hypercortisolism prior to bilateral adrenalectomy.

  • Intravenous fluconazole is an alternative treatment when ketoconazole is not tolerated and etomidate is not available.

  • Fluconazole is well tolerated with mild side effects. Hepatotoxicity is usually mild and resolves after drug discontinuation.

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Bernardo Marques Endocrinology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Raquel G Martins Endocrinology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Guilherme Tralhão Surgery Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Joana Couto Endocrinology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Sandra Saraiva Gastroenterology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Henrique Ferrão Surgery Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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João Ribeiro Oncology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Jacinta Santos Endocrinology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Teresa Martins Endocrinology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Ana Teresa Cadime Gastroenterology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Fernando Rodrigues Endocrinology Department, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra Franscisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal

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Summary

Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (GNENs) are classified into three types according to their aetiology. We present a clinical case of a female patient of 66 years and a well-differentiated (grade 2), type 3 GNEN with late liver metastasis (LM). The patient underwent surgical excision of a gastric lesion at 50 years of age, without any type of follow-up. Sixteen years later, she was found to have a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) metastatic to the liver. The histological review of the gastric lesion previously removed confirmed that it was a NET measuring 8 mm, pT1NxMx (Ki67 = 4%). 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT reported two LM and a possible pancreatic tumour/gastric adenopathy. Biopsies of the lesion were repeatedly inconclusive. She had a high chromogranin A, normal gastrin levels and negative anti-parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies, which is suggestive of type 3 GNEN. She underwent total gastrectomy and liver segmentectomies (segment IV and VII) with proven metastasis in two perigastric lymph nodes and both with hepatic lesions (Ki67 = 5%), yet no evidence of local recurrence. A 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT was performed 3 months after surgery, showing no tumour lesions and normalisation of CgA. Two years after surgery, the patient had no evidence of disease. This case illustrates a rare situation, being a type 3, well-differentiated (grade 2) GNEN, with late LM. Despite this, it was possible to perform surgery with curative intent, which is crucial in these cases, as systemic therapies have limited efficacy. We emphasise the need for extended follow-up in these patients.

Learning points:

  • GNENs have a very heterogeneous biological behaviour.

  • Clinical distinction between the three types of GNEN is essential to plan the correct management strategy.

  • LMs are rare and more common in type 3 and grade 3 GNEN.

  • Adequate follow-up is crucial for detection of disease recurrence.

  • Curative intent surgery is the optimal therapy for patients with limited and resectable LM, especially in well-differentiated tumours (grade 1 and 2).

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Shinsuke Uraki The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Hiroyuki Ariyasu The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Asako Doi The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Hiroto Furuta The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Masahiro Nishi The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Takeshi Usui Department of Medical Genetics, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka City, Japan

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Hiroki Yamaue The 2nd Department of Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Takashi Akamizu The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Summary

A 54-year-old man had gastrinoma, parathyroid hyperplasia and pituitary tumor. His family history indicated that he might have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). MEN1 gene analysis revealed a heterozygous germline mutation (Gly156Arg). Therefore, we diagnosed him with MEN1. Endocrinological tests revealed that his serum prolactin (PRL) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were elevated to 1699 ng/mL and 125 pg/mL respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of the resected pancreatic tumors revealed that the tumors did not express ACTH. Overnight 0.5 and 8 mg dexamethasone suppression tests indicated that his pituitary tumor was a PRL-ACTH-producing plurihormonal tumor. Before transsphenoidal surgery, cabergoline was initiated. Despite no decrease in the volume of the pituitary tumor, PRL and ACTH levels decreased to 37.8 ng/mL and 57.6 pg/mL respectively. Owing to the emergence of metastatic gastrinoma in the liver, octreotide was initiated. After that, PRL and ACTH levels further decreased to 5.1 ng/mL and 19.7 pg/mL respectively. He died from liver dysfunction, and an autopsy of the pituitary tumor was performed. In the autopsy study, histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed that the tumor was single adenoma and the cells were positive for ACTH, growth hormone (GH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL. RT-PCR analysis showed that the tumor expressed mRNA encoding all anterior pituitary hormones, pituitary transcription factor excluding estrogen receptor (ER) β, somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 2, SSTR5 and dopamine receptor D (D2R). PRL-ACTH-producing tumor is a very rare type of pituitary tumor, and treatment with cabergoline and octreotide may be useful for controlling hormone levels secreted from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma, as seen in this case of MEN1.

Learning points:

  • Although plurihormonal pituitary adenomas were reported to be more frequent in patients with MEN1 than in those without, the combination of PRL and ACTH is rare.

  • RT-PCR analysis showed that the pituitary tumor expressed various pituitary transcription factors and IHC analysis revealed that the tumor was positive for PRL, ACTH, GH and LH.

  • Generally, the effectiveness of dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog in corticotroph adenomas is low; however, if the plurihormonal pituitary adenoma producing ACTH expresses SSTR2, SSTR5 and D2R, medical therapy for the pituitary adenoma may be effective.

Open access
Benjamin G Challis Wellcome Trust–MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrinology Clinic, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Box 281, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark

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Vishakha Bansiya Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrinology Clinic, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Box 281, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Keith Burling Wellcome Trust–MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Peter Barker Wellcome Trust–MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Bolette Hartmann Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark

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Fiona Gribble Wellcome Trust–MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Stephen O'Rahilly Wellcome Trust–MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrinology Clinic, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Box 281, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Jens J Holst Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark

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Helen L Simpson Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrinology Clinic, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Box 281, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK

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Summary

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) secreting proglucagon are associated with phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we describe two patients with pNETs and varied clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs). Case 1, a 57-year-old woman presented with necrolytic migratory erythema, anorexia, constipation and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. She was found to have a grade 1 pNET, small bowel mucosal thickening and hyperglucagonaemia. Somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy improved appetite, abolished hypoglycaemia and improved the rash. Case 2, a 48-year-old male presented with diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and perineal rash due to a grade 1 metastatic pNET and hyperglucagonaemia. In both cases, plasma levels of all measured PGDPs were elevated and attenuated following SSA therapy. In case 1, there was increased production of intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2, similar to that of the enteroendocrine L cell. In case 2, pancreatic glucagon was elevated due to a pancreatic α-cell-like proglucagon processing profile. In summary, we describe two patients with pNETs and heterogeneous clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of PGDPs. This is the first description of a patient with symptomatic hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and marked gastrointestinal dysfunction due to, in part, a proglucagon-expressing pNET.

Learning points

  • PGDPs exhibit a diverse range of biological activities including critical roles in glucose and amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal physiology.

  • The clinical manifestations of proglucagon-expressing tumours may exhibit marked phenotypic variation due to the biochemical heterogeneity of their secreted peptide repertoire.

  • Specific and precise biochemical assessment of individuals with proglucagon-expressing tumours may provide opportunities for improved diagnosis and clinical management.

Open access
Shweta Birla Laboratory of Cyto-Molecular Genetics, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Viveka P Jyotsna Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Rajiv Singla Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Madhavi Tripathi Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Arundhati Sharma Laboratory of Cyto-Molecular Genetics, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

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Summary

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by tumors in endocrine and/or non endocrine organs due to mutations in MEN1 encoding a nuclear scaffold protein‘menin’ involved in regulation of different cellular activities. We report a novel 14 bp MEN1 deletion mutation in a 35-year-old female with history of recurrent epigastric pain, vomiting, loose stools and weight loss. On evaluation she was diagnosed to have multifocal gastro-duodenal gastrinoma with paraduodenal lymph nodes and solitary liver metastasis. She was also found to have primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral inferior parathyroid adenoma. Pancreatico-duodenectomy with truncalvagotomy was performed. Four months later, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of segment 4 of the liver was done followed by three and a half parathyroidectomy. MEN1 screening was carried out for the patient and her family members. MEN-1 sequencing in the patient revealed a heterozygous 14 bp exon 8 deletion. Evaluation for pathogenicity and protein structure prediction showed that the mutation led to a frameshift thereby causing premature termination resulting in a truncated protein. To conclude, a novel pathogenic MEN1 deletion mutation affecting its function was identified in a patient with hyperparathyroidism and gastrinoma. The report highlights the clinical consequences of the novel mutation and its impact on the structure and function of the protein. It also provides evidence for co-existence of pancreatic and duodenal gastrinomas in MEN1 syndrome. MEN1 testing provides important clues regarding etiology and therefore should be essentially undertaken in asymptomatic first degree relatives who could be potential carriers of the disease.

Learning points

  • Identification of a novel pathogenic MEN1 deletion mutation.

  • MEN1 mutation screening in patients with pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic tumors, and their first degree relatives gives important clues about the etiology.

  • Pancreatic and duodenal gastrinomas may co-exist simultaneously in MEN1 syndrome.

Open access
Avital Nahmias Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

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Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

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Asher Salmon Department of Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Kiryat Hadassah, Jerusalem, POB 12000, 91120, Israel

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David J Gross Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

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Summary

Approximately 35% of the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are functional, the most common of which is an insulinoma. Rarely can initially nonfunctioning tumor undergo biological transformation to a hormone-secreting tumor with subsequent changes in the clinical picture. We present here three unique patients with long-standing pNETs who developed life-threatening hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia along with tumor progression. In two of the patients, everolimus (Afinitor) was administered in an attempt to control both tumor growth and hypoglycemia. In two cases everolimus therapy resulted in the abolishment of hypoglycemia and induced significant tumor regression; however these beneficial responses were transient. These cases highlight the exceptional ability of pNETs to change biological behavior in parallel with disease progression. Our experience concurs with recently published studies demonstrating the utility of everolimus for the control of both hypoglycemia and tumor progression.

Learning points

  • Nonfunctional pNET can gain new features such as insulin secretion with related morbidity.

  • Gain of function in a previously nonfunctional pNET signifies tumor progression and is usually associated with poor prognosis.

  • Everolimus proved to be a viable treatment for hypoglycemia in insulinoma patients and was also proven highly effective in the patients presented here.

  • As disease progresses, the effect of everolimus on hypoglycemia wanes. We report for the first time the development of hypoglycemia during everolimus treatment.

Open access
Sally K Abell Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent's Hospital, PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, Melbourne, 3065 Victoria, Australia

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Jessie Teng Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent's Hospital, PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, Melbourne, 3065 Victoria, Australia

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Anthony Dowling Department of Oncology, St Vincent's Hospital, PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, Melbourne, 3065 Victoria, Australia

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Michael S Hofman Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Molecular Imaging, Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Richard J MacIsaac Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent's Hospital, PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, Melbourne, 3065 Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Nirupa Sachithanandan Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent's Hospital, PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, Melbourne, 3065 Victoria, Australia

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Summary

This paper details the case of a 77-year-old male with refractory hypoglycaemia due to inoperable metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (pNET) co-secreting insulin and gastrin. Multiple medical therapies were trialled with limited success, and we describe the complications experienced by our patient. Somatostatin analogues can ameliorate hypoglycaemia and may have tumour-stabilising effects; however, in our case resulted in paradoxical worsening of hypoglycaemia. This rendered our patient hospital dependent for glycaemic support including continuous dextrose infusion. Although this is a reported adverse effect with initiation of therapy, we describe successful initiation of short-acting octreotide as an inpatient followed by commencement of long-acting octreotide. Hypoglycaemic collapse occurred only after dose titration of long-acting octreotide. We outline the pitfalls of somatostatin analogue therapy and the mechanisms that may contribute to worsening hypoglycaemia. This rare side effect cannot be reliably predicted, necessitating close supervision and glucose monitoring during therapy. Our patient achieved disease stabilisation and gradual resolution of hypoglycaemia with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), an emerging therapeutic option for metastatic neuroendocrine tumours with high efficacy and low toxicity. We present a brief but comprehensive discussion of currently available and novel therapies for insulin secreting pNETs.

Learning points

  • Hypoglycaemia due to malignant insulin secreting pNET is frequently severe and may be life-threatening despite supportive therapies.

  • Octreotide can ameliorate hypoglycaemia, and may have anti-proliferative and tumour-stabilising effects in malignant pNETs that are surgically unresectable.

  • Paradoxical worsening of hypoglycaemia may occur with octreotide initiation and dose titration, necessitating close supervision and glucose monitoring.

  • PRRT is emerging as a therapeutic option with high efficacy and low toxicity.

Open access