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Open access

Carine Ghassan Richa, Khadija Jamal Saad, Ali Khaled Chaaban and Mohamad Souheil El Rawas


The objective of the study is to report a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcemia induced by primary hyperparathyroidism in a pregnant woman at the end of the first trimester. The case included a 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis and severe hypercalcemia refractory to many regimens of medical therapy in the first trimester of pregnancy. She was successfully treated with parathyroidectomy in the early second trimester with complete resolution of hypercalcemia and pancreatitis. Neonatal course was unremarkable. To our best knowledge, this is a rare case when primary hyperparathyroidism and its complications are diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. In conclusion, primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare life-threatening condition to the fetus and mother especially when associated with complications such as pancreatitis. Early therapeutic intervention is important to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Parathyroidectomy performed in the second trimester can be the only solution.

Learning points:

  • Learning how to make diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in a woman during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  • Understanding the complications of hypercalcemia and be aware of the high mortality and sequelae in both fetus and mother.

  • Providing the adequate treatment in such complicated cases with coordinated care between endocrinologists and obstetricians to ensure optimal outcomes.

Open access

Takashi Matsuo and Yoshihiko Ushiroda


A 32-year-old woman presented with 3days of epigastric pain and was admitted to our hospital (day 3 of disease). We diagnosed acute pancreatitis based on epigastric abdominal pain, hyperamylasemia, and an inflammatory reaction of withdrawn blood, pancreatic enlargement, and so on. Her condition improved with treatment; however, on day 8, she had decreased level of consciousness. Laboratory results led to a diagnosis of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) with concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis. Insulin therapy improved her blood glucose levels as well as her symptoms. Fatty liver with liver dysfunction was observed on day 14, which improved by day 24. Blood levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) increased rapidly from 440μEq/L (normal range: 140–850μEq/L) on day 4 to 2097μEq/L on days 7–8 (onset of FT1DM) and subsequently decreased to 246μEq/L at the onset of fatty liver. The rapid decrease in insulin at the onset of FT1DM likely freed fatty acids derived from triglycerides in peripheral adipocytes into the bloodstream. Insulin therapy rapidly transferred FFAs from the periphery to the liver. In addition, insulin promotes the de novo synthesis of triglycerides in the liver, using newly acquired FFAs as substrates. At the same time, inhibitory effects of insulin on VLDL secretion outside of the liver promote the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver, leading to fatty liver. We describe the process by which liver dysfunction and severe fatty liver occurs after the onset of FT1DM, from the perspective of disturbed fatty acid metabolism.

Learning points

  • FT1DM is rare but should be considered in patients with pancreatitis and a decreased level of consciousness.

  • Fatty liver should be considered in patients with FT1DM when liver dysfunction is observed.

  • Insulin is involved in mechanisms that promote fatty liver formation.

  • Pathophysiological changes in fatty acid metabolism may provide clues on lipid metabolism in the early phases of FT1DM.