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Anna Luiza Galeazzi Rech Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen, Klinik für Allgemeine Innere Medizin/Hausarztmedizin, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

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Yvon Stüve Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen, Klinik für Allgemeine Innere Medizin/Hausarztmedizin, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

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Andreas Toepfer Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen, Klinik für Orthopädische Chirurgie und Traumatologie des Bewegungsapparts, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

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Katrin E Schimke Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen, Klinik für Allgemeine Innere Medizin/Hausarztmedizin, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

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Summary

Acute Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CN) is a clinical entity which can easily go unrecognized in its acute early stages due to lack of awareness and unspecific presentation. However, missing early diagnosis can lead to severe complications. We present the case of a 72-year-old male patient who went through the natural course of the disease unnoticed before the very eyes of his physicians leading to a tragic end. We aim to raise awareness for this rare diabetic complication, emphasizing the necessity of early diagnosis and adequate, interdisciplinary treatment.

Learning points:

  • Clinical signs and symptoms of acute Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CN).

  • Red flags.

  • Importance of early diagnosis and correct treatment.

  • Diagnostic challenges of acute CN.

  • Awareness of high morbidity and mortality.

Open access
Misaki Aoshima Departments of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Koji Nagayama Departments of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Kei Takeshita Departments of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Hiroshi Ajima Departments of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Sakurako Orikasa Departments of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Ayana Iwazaki ²Departments of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Hiroaki Takatori Department of Rheumatology, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Yutaka Oki Department of Family and Community Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan

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Summary

Patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs, especially methotrexate (MTX), rarely develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), known as MTX-related LPD (MTX–LPD). The primary site of MTX–LPD is often extranodal. This is the first reported case of MTX–LPD in the pituitary. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of oculomotor nerve palsy and multiple subcutaneous nodules. She had been treated with MTX for 11 years for rheumatoid arthritis. Computed tomography showed multiple masses in the orbit, sinuses, lung fields, anterior mediastinum, kidney, and subcutaneous tissue. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass. She was diagnosed with hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus based on endocrine examination. Although pituitary biopsy could not be performed, we concluded that the pituitary lesion was from MTX–LPD, similar to the lesions in the sinuses, anterior mediastinum, and subcutaneous tissue, which showed polymorphic LPD on biopsy. MTX was discontinued, and methylprednisolone was administered to improve the neurologic symptoms. After several weeks, there was marked improvement of all lesions, including the pituitary lesion, but the pituitary function did not improve. When pituitary lesions are caused by MTX–LPD, the possibility of anterior hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus needs to be considered. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of early diagnosis and treatment of MTX–LPD in restoring pituitary dysfunction.

Learning points

  • Pituitary lesions from MTX–LPD may cause hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus.

  • Pituitary metastasis of malignant lymphoma and primary pituitary lymphoma, which have the same tissue types with MTX–LPD, have poor prognosis, but the lesions of MTX–LPD can regress only after MTX discontinuation.

  • In cases of pituitary lesions alone, a diagnosis of MTX–LPD may be difficult, unless pituitary biopsy is performed. This possibility should be considered in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  • Pituitary hypofunction and diabetes insipidus may persist, even after regression of the lesions on imaging due to MTX discontinuation.

Open access
Vasileios Chortis Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK
Departments of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Christine J H May Departments of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Kassiani Skordilis Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK
Departments of Cellular Pathology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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John Ayuk Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK
Departments of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Wiebke Arlt Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK
Departments of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Rachel K Crowley St. Vincent’s University Hospital and University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

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Summary

Context

Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) represent an increasingly common problem in modern endocrine practice. The diagnostic approach to AIs can be challenging and occasionally reveals surprising features. Here we describe two rare cases of complex adrenal lesions consisting of phaeochromocytomas with synchronous metastases from extra-adrenal primaries.

Case descriptions

Patient 1 – a 65-year-old gentleman with a newly diagnosed malignant melanoma was found to harbour an adrenal lesion with suspicious radiographic characteristics. Percutaneous adrenal biopsy was consistent with adrenocortical adenoma. After excision of the skin melanoma and regional lymphatic metastases, he was followed up without imaging. Three years later, he presented with abdominal discomfort and enlargement of his adrenal lesion, associated with high plasma metanephrines. Adrenalectomy revealed a mixed tumour consisting of a large phaeochromocytoma with an embedded melanoma metastasis in its core. Patient 2 – a 63-year-old lady with a history of NF-1-related phaeochromocytoma 20 years ago and previous breast cancer presented with a new adrenal lesion on the contralateral side. Plasma normetanephrine was markedly elevated. Elective adrenalectomy revealed an adrenal tumour consisting of chromaffin cells intermixed with breast carcinoma cells.

Conclusions

Adrenal incidentalomas require careful evaluation to exclude metastatic disease, especially in the context of a history of previous malignancy. Adrenal biopsy provides limited and potentially misleading information. Phaeochromocytomas are highly vascularised tumours that may function as a sieve, extracting and retaining irregularly shaped cancer cells, thereby yielding adrenal masses with intriguing dual pathology.

Learning points:

  • Adrenal incidentalomas require careful evaluation focused on exclusion of underlying hormone excess and malignant pathology.

  • Adrenal biopsy can be misleading and should only be considered in select cases.

  • Phaeochromocytomas harbouring intratumoural metastases from other, extra-adrenal primary malignancies represent rare pathological entities that highlight the complexities that can be presented by adrenal tumours.

Open access
Yael Lefkovits Wolfson Diabetes Centre, Addenbrooke’s Hospital Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

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Amanda Adler Wolfson Diabetes Centre, Addenbrooke’s Hospital Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

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Summary

Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD) is a chronic granulomatous dermatitis generally involving the anterior aspect of the shin, that arises in 0.3–1.2% of patients with diabetes mellitus (). The lesions are often yellow or brown with telangiectatic plaque, a central area of atrophy and raised violaceous borders (). Similar to other conditions with a high risk of scarring including burns, stasis ulcers and lupus vulgaris, NLD provides a favourable environment for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation (). A number of cases of SCC from NLD have been recorded (, , ); however, our search of the literature failed to identify any cases of either metastatic or fatal SCC which developed within an area of NLD. This article describes a patient with established type 1 diabetes mellitus who died from SCC which developed from an area of NLD present for over 10 years. Currently, there are a paucity of recommendations in the medical literature for screening people with NLD for the early diagnosis of SCC. We believe that clinicians should regard non-healing ulcers in the setting of NLD with a high index of clinical suspicion for SCC, and an early biopsy of such lesions should be recommended.

Learning points:

  • Non-healing, recalcitrant ulcers arising from necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, which fail to heal by conservative measures, should be regarded with a high index of clinical suspicion for malignancy.

  • If squamous cell carcinoma is suspected, a biopsy should be performed as soon as possible to prevent metastatic spread, amputation or even death.

  • Our literature search failed to reveal specific recommendations for screening and follow-up of non-healing recalcitrant ulcers in the setting of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum.

  • Further research is required in this field.

Open access
Naoya Toriu Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Masayuki Yamanouchi Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Rikako Hiramatsu Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Noriko Hayami Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Junichi Hoshino Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Akinari Sekine Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Masahiro Kawada Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Eiko Hasegawa Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Tatsuya Suwabe Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Keiichi Sumida Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Toshiharu Ueno Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Naoki Sawa Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Kenichi Ohashi Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan

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Takeshi Fujii Department of Pathology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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Kenmei Takaichi Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan

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Motoko Yanagita Department of Nephrology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

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Tetsuro Kobayasi Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan

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Yoshifumi Ubara Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan

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Summary

We report the case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus. At 47 years of age, her hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 10.0%, and she had overt nephropathy. The first renal biopsy yielded a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Intensive glycemic control was initiated and her HbA1c improved to 6.0%. Renal dysfunction showed no progression for 15 years. At 62 years of age, a second renal biopsy was performed. Glomerular lesions did not show progression but tubulointerstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions showed progression compared with the first biopsy. Intensive glycemic control can prevent the progression of glomerular lesions, but might not be effective for interstitial and vascular lesions.

Learning points:

  • Intensive control of blood glucose can prevent the progression of glomerular lesions.

  • Intensive control of blood glucose may not be able to prevent progression of interstitial and vascular lesions.

  • CSII reduces HbA1c without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.

Open access
Noor Rafhati Adyani Abdullah Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine, Putrajaya Hospital, Putrajaya, Malaysia

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Wong Lok Chin Jason Department of Medicine, National University of Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Azraai Bahari Nasruddin Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine, Putrajaya Hospital, Putrajaya, Malaysia

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Summary

Pachydermoperiostosis is a very rare osteoarthrodermopathic disorder whose clinical and radiographic presentations may mimic those of acromegaly. In the evaluation of patients with acromegaloid appearances, pachydermoperiostosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. In this article, we report a 17-year-old boy who presented with 2-year history of acral enlargement and facial appearance changes associated with joint pain and excessive sweating. He had been investigated extensively for acromegaly, and the final diagnosis was pachydermoperiostosis.

Learning points

  • There is a broad range of differential diagnosis for acromegaloid features such as acromegaly, pseudoacromegaly with severe insulin resistance, Marfan’s syndrome, McCune–Albright and a rare condition called pachydermoperiostosis.

  • Once a patient is suspected to have acromegaly, the first step is biochemical testing to confirm the clinical diagnosis, followed by radiologic testing to determine the cause of the excess growth hormone (GH) secretion. The cause is a somatotroph adenoma of the pituitary in over 95 percent of cases.

  • The first step is measurement of a serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). A normal serum IGF1 concentration is strong evidence that the patient does not have acromegaly.

  • If the serum IGF1 concentration is high (or equivocal), serum GH should be measured after oral glucose administration. Inadequate suppression of GH after a glucose load confirms the diagnosis of acromegaly.

  • Once the presence of excess GH secretion is confirmed, the next step is pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  • Atypical presentation warrants revision of the diagnosis. This patient presented with clubbing with no gigantism, which is expected in adolescent acromegalics as the growth spurt and epiphyseal plate closure have not taken place yet.

Open access
Hiroto Minamino The First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Wakayama, Japan

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Hidefumi Inaba The First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan

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Hiroyuki Ariyasu The First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan

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Hiroto Furuta The First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan

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Masahiro Nishi The First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan

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Takashi Yoshimasu Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Akinori Nishikawa Department of Hematology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Masanori Nakanishi Department of Respiratory Medicine & Medical Oncology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Shigeki Tsuchihashi Department of Otolaryngology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Fumiyoshi Kojima Department of Human Pathology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Shin-ichi Murata Department of Human Pathology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

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Gen Inoue Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Wakayama, Japan

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Takashi Akamizu The First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan

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Summary

A 73-year-old man with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) suffered from purpura on the lower legs. He was diagnosed with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) with serum IgG4 elevation and dacryo-sialadenitis confirmed histologically. Serum Th2 and Treg cytokines, interleukin 7 (IL7), IL8 and Th2 chemokine levels were elevated, while skewed Th1 balance was seen in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Therefore, preferential Th1 balance in HT appeared to be followed by IgG4-RD characterized with Th2 and Treg polarization. The commencement of steroid therapy dramatically exacerbated clinical manifestations including IgG4-RD-associated HT. The measurement of cytokine and chemokine levels as well as FACS analysis in the development of IgG4-RD seemed to be beneficial. In conclusion, an innovative association of HT, IgG4-RD and vasculitis was observed. This report also offers novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for IgG4-RD.

Learning points

  • Recently, a subtype of HT has been considered to be a thyroid manifestation of IgG4-RD, although the etiology of IgG4-RD is not established yet.

  • Immunologically a close association between HT and vasculitis was reported.

  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is a rare skin presentation of IgG4-RD.

  • In the current case, during the course of HT, IgG4-RD and leukocytoclastic vasculitis occurred; thus, innate immunity and acquired immunity seem to be involved in the development of IgG4-RD.

  • The measurement of cytokine and chemokines appeared to be beneficial in the development of IgG4-RD.

  • Remarkably, effectiveness of steroid therapy for HT suggested presence of IgG4-RD-associated HT. Therefore, this report highlights the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD and proposes novel therapeutic mechanisms. Clinicians should pay attention to the development of IgG4-RD and vasculitis during long course of HT.

Open access